Energy units converter
Energy units converter. Converts joules, calories, many physical, british, american and time related units.

Inputs data - value and unit, which we're going to convert#

Value
Unit
Decimals

#

common use#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
jouleShow sourceJJJ1The basic energy unit in the SI system. One joule corresponds to the work done by a force of one newton (1 N) by shifting the point of force application by one meter (1 m) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.1 J=1 N1 m1\ J = 1\ N \cdot 1\ m
calorieShow sourcecalcalcal0.238845897Heat unit standardized during Fifth International Conference on Water and Steam Properties (IAPWS), which took place in 1956 in London. Unit is an attempt to organize various calorie definitions by introducing so-called international calorie corresponding to exactly 4.868 of joule. See other calorie definitions to learn more.1 calIT4.1868 J1\ cal_{IT} \equiv 4.1868\ J
kilo-calorieShow sourcekcalkcalkcal0.000238846Equivalent to one thousand of international calories (1000 calIT). Sometimes called also large calorie. See the calorie unit for more.1 kcal=1000 calIT1\ kcal = 1000\ cal_{IT}
kilowatt-hourShow sourcekW×hkW \times hkW·h2.777777778×10-7Unit used for electric cost pricing. One kilowatt-hour (1 kW·h) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one kilowatt (1 kW) within one hour (60 min).1 kWh=1000 W60 min=1000 Js3600 s=3.6 MJ1\ kW \cdot h = 1000\ W \cdot 60\ min = 1000\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot 3600\ \cancel{s} = 3.6\ MJ

SI#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
yottajouleShow sourceYJYJYJ1×10-24Derived energy unit in SI system. One yottajoule is equal to septylion of joules: 1 YJ=1024 J1\ YJ= 10^{24}\ J
zettajouleShow sourceZJZJZJ1×10-21Derived energy unit in SI system. One zettajoule is equal to sextillion of joules: 1 ZJ=1021 J1\ ZJ= 10^{21}\ J
exajouleShow sourceEJEJEJ1×10-18Derived energy unit in SI system. One exajoule is equal to quintillion of joules: 1 EJ=1018 J1\ EJ= 10^{18}\ J
petajouleShow sourcePJPJPJ1×10-15Derived energy unit in SI system. One petajoule is equal to quadrillion of joules: 1 PJ=1015 J1\ PJ= 10^{15}\ J
terajouleShow sourceTJTJTJ1×10-12Derived energy unit in SI system. One terajoule is equal to trillion of joules: 1 TJ=1012 J1\ TJ= 10^{12}\ J
gigajouleShow sourceGJGJGJ1×10-9Derived energy unit in SI system. One gigajoule is equal to billion of joules: 1 GJ=109 J1\ GJ= 10^{9}\ J
megajouleShow sourceMJMJMJ0.000001Derived energy unit in SI system. One megajoule is equal to million of joules: 1 MJ=1000000 J=106 J1\ MJ=1000000\ J= 10^{6}\ J
kilojouleShow sourcekJkJkJ0.001Derived energy unit in SI system. One kilojoule is equal to thausand of joules: 1 kJ=1000 J=103 J1\ kJ=1000\ J= 10^{3}\ J
hektojouleShow sourcehJhJhJ0.01Derived energy unit in SI system. One hektojoule is equal to hundred of joules: 1 hJ=100 J=102 J1\ hJ=100\ J= 10^{2}\ J
jouleShow sourceJJJ1The basic energy unit in the SI system. One joule corresponds to the work done by a force of one newton (1 N) by shifting the point of force application by one meter (1 m) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.1 J=1 N1 m1\ J = 1\ N \cdot 1\ m
decijouleShow sourcedJdJdJ10Derived energy unit in SI system. One decijoule is equal to one tenth of joule: 1 dJ=0.1 J=101 J1\ dJ=0.1\ J= 10^{-1}\ J
centijouleShow sourcecJcJcJ100Derived energy unit in SI system. One centijoule is equal to one hundredth of joule: 1 cJ=0.01 J=102 J1\ cJ=0.01\ J= 10^{-2}\ J
milijouleShow sourcemJmJmJ1000Derived energy unit in SI system. One milijoule is equal to one thousandth of joule: 1 mJ=0.001 J=103 J1\ mJ=0.001\ J= 10^{-3}\ J
microjouleShow sourceμJ\mu JµJ1000000Derived energy unit in SI system. One microjoule is equal to one millionth of joule: 1 μJ=0.000001 J=106 J1\ \mu J=0.000001\ J= 10^{-6}\ J
nanojouleShow sourcenJnJnJ1000000000Derived energy unit in SI system. One nanojoule is equal to one billionth of joule: 1 nJ=109 J1\ nJ= 10^{-9}\ J
pikojouleShow sourcepJpJpJ1×1012Derived energy unit in SI system. One pikojoule is equal to one trillionth of joule: 1 pJ=1012 J1\ pJ= 10^{-12}\ J
femtojouleShow sourcefJfJfJ1×1015Derived energy unit in SI system. One femtojoule is equal to one quadrillionth of joule: 1 fJ=1015 J1\ fJ= 10^{-15}\ J
attojouleShow sourceaJaJaJ1×1018Derived energy unit in SI system. One attojoule is equal to one quintillionth of joule: 1 aJ=1018 J1\ aJ= 10^{-18}\ J
zeptojouleShow sourcezJzJzJ1×1021Derived energy unit in SI system. One zeptojoule is equal to one sextillionth of joule: 1 zJ=1021 J1\ zJ= 10^{-21}\ J
yoctojouleShow sourceyJyJyJ1×1024Derived energy unit in SI system. One yoctojoule is equal to one septillionth of joule: 1 yJ=1024 J1\ yJ= 10^{-24}\ J

British Thermal Unit (BTU) related#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
British thermal unit (thermochemical)Show sourceBTUthBTU_{th}BTUth0.000948452An attempt to fix issue with various definitions of heat units. One thermodynamic British thermal unit (1 BTUTH) corresponds exactly to 1.05587 kilojoules. See the other BTU definitions for more information.1 BTUTH1.05587 kJ1\ BTU_{TH} \equiv 1.05587\ kJ
British thermal unit (ISO)Show sourceBTUISOBTU_{ISO}BTUISO0.000948317An obsolete heat unit defined by ISO 31-4 standard. The unit was created by rounding up the British thermal IT unit. See the BTU ITunit for more information.1 BTUISO1.05506 kJ1\ BTU_{ISO} \equiv 1.05506\ kJ
British thermal unit (63 °F)Show sourceBTU63FBTU_{63^\circ F}BTU63 °F0.000948227A heat unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. One British thermal unit defined for temperature sixty-three degrees fahrenheit (63°F) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) from sixty-three (63°F) to sixty-four (64°F) degrees fahrenheit under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm).1 BTUTH=ΔQ6364F1.0546 kJ1\ BTU_{TH} = \Delta Q_{63 \rightarrow 64^{\circ}F} \approx 1.0546\ kJ
British thermal unit (60 °F)Show sourceBTU60FBTU_{60^\circ F}BTU60 °F0.000948155A heat unit used in the Canada. One British thermal unit defined for temperature sixty degrees fahrenheit (60°F) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) from sixty (60°F) to sixty-one (61°F) degrees fahrenheit under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm).1 BTUTH=ΔQ6061F1054.68 kJ1\ BTU_{TH} = \Delta Q_{60 \rightarrow 61^{\circ}F} \approx 1054.68\ kJ
British thermal unit (59 °F)Show sourceBTU59FBTU_{59^\circ F}BTU59 °F0.000948043A heat unit used in United States for natural gas pricing. One British thermal unit defined for temperature fifty-nine degrees fahrenheit (59°F) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) from fifty-nine (59°F) to sixty (60°F) degrees fahrenheit under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm).1 BTUTH=ΔQ5960F1054.80 kJ1\ BTU_{TH} = \Delta Q_{59 \rightarrow 60^{\circ}F} \approx 1054.80\ kJ
British thermal unit (International Table)Show sourceBTUITBTU_{IT}BTUIT0.000947817A heat unit standardized during Fifth International Conference on Water and Steam Properties (IAPWS), which took place in 1956 in London. It was an attempt to organize various definitions of heat units by introducing the so-called an international British thermal unit exactly equal to 1.05505585262 kilojoules. See the other BTU unit definitions for more information.1 BTUIT1.05505585262 kJ1\ BTU_{IT} \equiv 1.05505585262\ kJ
British thermal unit (mean)Show sourceBTUmeanBTU_{mean}BTUmean0.000947086Obsolete heat unit. One average British thermal unit corresponds to the average amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) by one degree of fahrenheit. Unit is defined as 1/180 of the heat needed to bring water from melting point (32°F) to boiling (212°F).1 BTUsˊr.=1180ΔQ32212F1.05587 kJ1\ BTU_{\text{śr.}} = \frac{1}{180} \Delta Q_{32 \rightarrow 212^{\circ}F} \approx 1.05587\ kJ
British thermal unit (39 °F)Show sourceBTU39FBTU_{39^\circ F}BTU390.00094369A heat unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. One British thermal unit defined for temperature thirty-nine degrees fahrenheit (39°F) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) from thirty-nine (39°F) to fourty (40°F) degrees fahrenheit under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm).1 BTUTH=ΔQ3940F1.05967 kJ1\ BTU_{TH} = \Delta Q_{39 \rightarrow 40^{\circ}F} \approx 1.05967\ kJ
Celsius heat unit (International Table)Show sourceCHUITCHU_{IT}CHUIT0.000526565An obsolete heat unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. One Celsius heat unit (1 chu) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm) by one degree Celsius (1°C). 1 chu1.89918 kJ1\ chu \approx 1.89918\ kJ
quadShow source--9.478171203×10-19Unit energy used to describe world power industry. One quad corresponds to one quadrillion of british thermal units (1015 BTU). See the BTU unit for more.1 quad=1015 BTUIT1\ \text{quad} = 10^{15}\ BTU_{IT}
therm (U.S.)Show source--9.48043428×10-9Energy unit used by natural gas companies in the United States. One americal therm (1 therm US) is defined as one hundred thousand of british thermal units for temperature of fifty-ninte deegres Fahrenheit (100,000 BTU59°F), which approximately equals to amount of energy released while burning one hundred cubic feet of natural gas (100 cu ft). See the BTU unit for more.1 therm (US)=100 000 BTU59°F1\ \text{therm (US)} = 100\ 000\ BTU_{\text{59°F}}
therm (E.C.)Show source--9.478171203×10-9Therm unit used by engineers. One engineer therm (1 therm EC) equals to one one hundred thousand of international british thermal units (100,000 BTUIT). See the therm (US) oraz BTU units for more.1 therm (EC)=100 000 BTUIT1\ \text{therm (EC)} = 100\ 000\ BTU_{IT}

Calories related#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
calorie (20 °C)Show sourcecal20Ccal_{20^\circ C}cal20 °C0.239125756Equivalent of energy needed to heat one gram (1 g) of water with temperature twenty degrees Celsius (20°C) under one atmosphere pressure (1 atm) by one degree (1°C).1 cal20C=ΔQ2021C4.182 J1\ cal_{20^{\circ}C} = \Delta Q_{20 \rightarrow 21^{\circ}C} \approx 4.182\ J
calorie (thermochemical)Show sourcecalthcal_{th}calth0.239005736An attempt to sort out various calorie definitions. One thermodynamic calorie corresponds exactly to 4.184 joules. See the other calorie definitions for more information.1 calTH4.184 J1\ cal_{TH} \equiv 4.184\ J
calorie (15 °C)Show sourcecal15Ccal_{15^\circ C}cal15 °C0.238920081Equivalent of energy needed to heat one gram (1 g) of water with temperature fifteen degrees Celsius (15°C) under one atmosphere pressure (1 atm) by one degree (1°C).1 cal15C=ΔQ1516C4.1855 J1\ cal_{15^{\circ}C} = \Delta Q_{15 \rightarrow 16^{\circ}C} \approx 4.1855\ J
calorie (International Table)Show sourcecalITcal_{IT}calIT0.238845897Heat unit standardized during Fifth International Conference on Water and Steam Properties (IAPWS), which took place in 1956 in London. Unit is an attempt to organize various calorie definitions by introducing so-called international calorie corresponding to exactly 4.868 of joule. See other calorie definitions to learn more.1 calIT4.1868 J1\ cal_{IT} \equiv 4.1868\ J
calorie (mean)Show sourcecalmeancal_{mean}calmean0.238662345Average energy needed to heat one gram (1 g) of water under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm) by one degree Celsius (1°C). Defined as one hundredth (1/100) of heat needed to bring water from the melting point (0°C) to boiling (100°C).1 calmean=1100 ΔQ0100C4.190 J1\ cal_{mean} = \frac{1}{100}\ \Delta Q_{0 \rightarrow 100^{\circ}C} \approx 4.190\ J
calorie (3.98 °C)Show sourcecal3.98Ccal_{3.98^\circ C}cal3.98 °C0.237840409Equivalent of energy needed to heat one gram (1 g) of water with temperature 3.98 degrees Celsius (3.98°C) under one atmosphere pressure (1 atm) by one degree (1°C).1 cal3.98C=ΔQ3.984.98C4.2045 J1\ cal_{3.98^{\circ}C} = \Delta Q_{3.98 \rightarrow 4.98^{\circ}C} \approx 4.2045\ J
kilocalorieShow sourcekcalkcalkcal0.000238846Equivalent to one thousand of international calories (1000 calIT). Sometimes called also large calorie. See the calorie unit for more.1 kcal=1000 calIT1\ kcal = 1000\ cal_{IT}
large calorieShow sourceCalCalCal0.000238846Alternative name for kilocalorie (1 kcal). See kilocalorie unit for more.1 Cal=1 kcal=1000 calIT1\ Cal = 1\ kcal = 1000\ cal_{IT}
thermieShow sourceththth2.388458966×10-7Equivalent to one thousand kilocalories (1000 kcal) or one million international calories (1,000,000 calIT). See the calorie or kilocalorie units for more.1 th=1000 kcal=1 000 000 calIT1\ th = 1000\ kcal = 1\ 000\ 000\ cal_{IT}

Displacement related (UK/US)#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
foot-poundalShow sourceft pdl\text{ft pdl}ft pdl23.730360404An obsolete heat unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. Equivalent to work done by a force of one poundal (1 pdl) by shifting the point of force application by one foot (1 ft) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.1 ft pdl=1 ft1 pdl==0.3048 m0.138254954 N==0.0421401099792 mN==0.0421401099792 J\begin{aligned}1\ ft\ pdl &= 1\ ft \cdot 1\ pdl =\\&= 0.3048\ m \cdot 0.138254954\ N =\\&= 0.0421401099792\ m \cdot N =\\&= 0.0421401099792\ J\end{aligned}
foot-pound forceShow sourceft lbf\text{ft lbf}ft lbf0.737562149An obsolete heat unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. Equivalent to work done by a one pound-force (1 lbf) by shifting the point of force application by one foot (1 ft) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.1 ft lbf=1 ft1 lbf==0.3048 m4.448221615 N==1.355817948252 mN==1.355817948252 J\begin{aligned}1\ ft\ lbf &= 1\ ft \cdot 1\ lbf =\\&= 0.3048\ m \cdot 4.448221615\ N =\\&= 1.355817948252\ m \cdot N =\\&= 1.355817948252\ J\end{aligned}
inch-pound forceShow sourcein lbf\text{in lbf}in lbf8.850745791An obsolete heat unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. Equivalent to work done by a one pound-force (1 lbf) by shifting the point of force application by one inch (1 in) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.1 in lbf=1 in1 lbf==0.0254 m0.112984829021 N==0.112984829021 mN==1.355817948252 J\begin{aligned}1\ in\ lbf &= 1\ in \cdot 1\ lbf =\\&= 0.0254\ m \cdot 0.112984829021\ N =\\&= 0.112984829021\ m \cdot N =\\&= 1.355817948252\ J\end{aligned}

Pressure related (UK/US)#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
cubic foot of atmosphereShow sourceft3×atmft^3 \times atmcu ft atm; scf0.000348529An energy unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one cubic foot (1 cu ft) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).1 cu ft atm=1 ft3101325 Pa==0.028316847 m3101325Nm2==2869.204522275 mN==2.869204522275 kJ\begin{aligned}1\ cu\ ft\ atm &= 1\ ft^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 0.028316847\ m^{\cancel{3}} \cdot 101325 \frac{N}{\cancel{m^2}} =\\&= 2869.204522275\ m \cdot N =\\&= 2.869204522275\ kJ\end{aligned}
cubic yard of atmosphereShow sourceyd3×atmyd^3 \times atmcu yd atm; scy0.000012908An energy unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one cubic yard (1 cu yd) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).1 cu yd atm=1 ft3101325 Pa==0.764554858 m3101325Nm2==78233.07584485 mN==78.23307584485 kJ\begin{aligned}1\ cu\ yd\ atm &= 1\ ft^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 0.764554858\ m^{\cancel{3}} \cdot 101325 \frac{N}{\cancel{m^2}} =\\&= 78233.07584485\ m \cdot N =\\&= 78.23307584485\ kJ\end{aligned}
gallon-atmosphere (US)Show sourceUS gal atm\text{US gal atm}US gal atm0.002607175An energy unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one US gallon (1 gal US) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).1 gal(US) atm=0.003785412 m3101325 Pa==383.5568709 mN=383.5568709 J\begin{aligned}1\ gal(US)\ atm &= 0.003785412\ m^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 383.5568709\ m \cdot N = 383.5568709\ J\end{aligned}
gallon-atmosphere (imperial)Show sourceimp gal atm\text{imp gal atm}imp gal atm0.002170928An energy unit used in Anglo-Saxon countries. Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one imperial gallon (1 gal UK) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).1 gal(UK) atm=0.00454609 m3101325 Pa==460.63256925 mN=460.63256925 J\begin{aligned}1\ gal(UK)\ atm &= 0.00454609\ m^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 460.63256925\ m \cdot N = 460.63256925\ J\end{aligned}

Pressure based (metric)#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
cubic centimetre of atmosphereShow sourcecc atm; scc\text{cc atm; scc}cc atm; scc9.869232667Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one cubic centimeter (1 cm³) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm). Sometimes called also standard cubic centimetre.1 cc atm=1 cm3101325 Pa==106 m3101325Nm2==0.101325 mN==0.101325 J\begin{aligned}1\ cc\ atm &= 1\ cm^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 10^{-6}\ m^{\cancel{3}} \cdot 101325 \frac{N}{\cancel{m^2}} =\\&= 0.101325\ m \cdot N =\\&= 0.101325\ J\end{aligned}
litre-atmosphereShow sourcel atm\text{l atm}l atm0.009869233Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one litre (1 l) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).1 l atm=1 dm3101325 Pa==0.001 m3101325Nm2==101.325 mN==101.325 J\begin{aligned}1\ l\ atm &= 1\ dm^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 0.001\ m^{\cancel{3}} \cdot 101325 \frac{N}{\cancel{m^2}} =\\&= 101.325\ m \cdot N =\\&= 101.325\ J\end{aligned}

physical#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
atomic unit of energyShow sourceauauau2.293712757×1017A unit of energy often used in quantum mechanical calculations. One atomic energy unit corresponds to two electron energies in a hydrogen atom in its ground state. Another name for this unit is hartree (1 Eh) or hartree's energy.1 au=1 Eh=e24πϵ0a0=4.359 743 81(34)1018 J1\ au = 1\ E_h = \frac{e^2}{4 \pi \epsilon_0 a_0} = 4.359\ 743\ 81(34) \cdot 10^{-18}\ JWhere:
hartreeShow sourceEhE_hEh2.293712757×1017Another name for atomic unit of energy. See atomic unit of energy for more.1 Eh=2 Ry1\ E_h = 2\ Ry
electronvoltShow sourceeVeVeV6.241509125×1018A unit of energy used in various fields of physics and chemistry. One electronvolt (1 eV) corresponds to the energy that an electron receives or loses during acceleration within electric field with a potential difference of one volt (1 V). To calculate the value of one electronvolt in joules, we can multiply elementary charge (charge of single electron) by one volt.1 eV=e1 V==1.6021766208(98)1019C1 WA==1.6021766208(98)1019 AsJsA==1.6021766208(98)1019 J\begin{aligned}1\ eV &= e \cdot 1\ V =\\&= 1.6021766208(98) \cdot 10^{-19}C \cdot 1\ \frac{W}{A} =\\&= 1.6021766208(98) \cdot 10^{-19}\ \cancel{A \cdot s} \cdot \frac{J}{\cancel{s \cdot A}} =\\&= 1.6021766208(98) \cdot 10^{-19}\ J\end{aligned}
kilojoule per molShow sourcekJmol\frac{kJ}{mol}kJ/mol6.02214076×1020Unit of energy per amount of substance unit. Widely used in thermodynamics to determine the energy of chemical reactions or phase transitions, e.g. enthalpy of evaporation.1 kJmol=1NA kJ=1000 J6.022140761023=1.660539067173851021 J1\ \frac{kJ}{mol}= \frac{1}{N_A}\ kJ = \frac{1000\ J}{6.02214076 \cdot 10^{23}} = 1.66053906717385 \cdot 10^{-21}\ JWhere:
  • NAN_A - Avogadro constant equals to number of particles (atoms, molecules, ions etc.) in one mole of substance.
erg (cgs unit)Show sourceergergerg10000000Historic energy unit in centimeter-gram-second system (CGS). One erg corresponds to the work done by force of one dyne (1 dyne) when the point of force application is shifted by one centimeter (1 cm) in a direction parallel to the direction of force.1 erg=1 dyn1 cm=103 kg104 ms2=107 J1\ erg = 1\ dyn \cdot 1\ cm = \frac{10^{-3}\ kg \cdot 10^{-4}\ m}{s^2} = 10^{-7}\ J
rydbergShow sourceRyRyRy4.587425513×1017A unit of energy used in atomic physics. One rydberg (1 Ry) corresponds to ionization energy of a hydrogen atom in the ground state.1 Ry=12 Eh=e28πϵ0a0=2.179 871 905(17)1018 J1\ Ry = \frac{1}{2}\ E_h = \frac{e^2}{8 \pi \epsilon_0 a_0} = 2.179\ 871\ 905(17) \cdot 10^{-18}\ JWhere:

time related#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
horsepower-hourShow sourcehp×hhp \times hhp·h3.72506136×10-7Amount of work done by an one horsepower engine (1 hp) within one hour (60 min).1 hp(I)h=745.69987158227022 W60 min==745.69987158227022 Js3600 s==2.68451953769617 MJ\begin{aligned}1\ hp(I) \cdot h &= 745.69987158227022\ W \cdot 60\ min =\\&= 745.69987158227022\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot 3600\ \cancel{s} =\\&= 2.68451953769617\ MJ\end{aligned}
watt-secondShow sourceW×sW \times sW·s1Equivalent to one joule (1 J). One watt-second (1 W·s) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one watt (1 W) within one second (1 s). See the joule unit to learn more.1 Ws=1 Jss=1 J1\ W \cdot s = 1\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot \cancel{s} = 1\ J
kilowatt-secondShow sourcekW×skW \times skW·s0.001Equivalent to one kilojoule (1 kJ) or one thousand joules (1000 J). One kilowatt-second (1 kW·s) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one kilowatt (1 kW) within one second (1 s). See the joule unit to learn more.1 kWs=1 1000 Jss=1000 J=1 kJ1\ kW \cdot s = 1\ \frac{1000\ J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot \cancel{s} = 1000\ J = 1\ kJ
watt-hourShow sourceW×hW \times hW·h0.000277778Unit used to measure electricity consumption. One watt-hour (1 W·h) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one watt (1 W) within one hour (60 min).1 Wh=1 W60 min=1 Js3600 s=3.6 kJ1\ W \cdot h = 1\ W \cdot 60\ min = 1\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot 3600\ \cancel{s} = 3.6\ kJ
kilowatt-hourShow sourcekW×hkW \times hkW·h2.777777778×10-7Unit used for electric cost pricing. One kilowatt-hour (1 kW·h) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one kilowatt (1 kW) within one hour (60 min).1 kWh=1000 W60 min=1000 Js3600 s=3.6 MJ1\ kW \cdot h = 1000\ W \cdot 60\ min = 1000\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot 3600\ \cancel{s} = 3.6\ MJ

materials related#

UnitSymbolSymbol
(plain text)
ValueNotes
barrel of oil equivalentShow sourceBOEBOEBOE1.633986928×10-10A unit of energy used in the power industry. Burning one barrel (42 US gallons) of crude oil (1 BOE) corresponds to the release of about six million British thermal units (5,800,000 BTU). See the BTU unit for more information.1 BOE=5.8106 BTU59F=6.1178632 GJ1\ BOE = 5.8 \cdot 10^6\ BTU_{59^{\circ}F} = 6.1178632\ GJ
ton of TNTShow sourcetTNTtTNTtTNT2.390057361×10-10A unit used to determine amount of energy released in an explosion, e.g. to compare nuclear weapons. The explosion of one ton of TNT (1 tTNT) corresponds to release of about four gigajoules of energy (4 GJ). See the joule unit to learn more.1 tTNT=4.184 GJ1\ tTNT = 4.184\ GJ
ton of coal equivalentShow sourceTCETCETCE3.412084238×10-11A unit of energy used in the power industry. Burning one ton of coal (1 TCE) corresponds to release about twenty-nine gigajoules of energy (29 GJ). See the joule unit to learn more.1 TCE=29.3076 GJ1\ TCE = 29.3076\ GJ
ton of oil equivalentShow sourceTOETOETOE2.388458966×10-11A unit of energy used in the power industry. Burning one ton of crude oil (1 TOE) corresponds to release of about forty-two gigajoules of energy (42 GJ). See the joule unit to learn more.1 TOE=41.868 GJ1\ TOE = 41.868\ GJ
cubic foot of natural gasShow source--9.478171203×10-7Equivalent of amount of energy released while burning out one cubic foot (1 cu ft) of natural gas.1 ft3 natural gas1000 BTU59F1\ ft^3\ \text{natural gas} \approx 1000\ BTU_{59^{\circ}F}

Some facts#

  • Energy is the scalar physical quantity expressing the ability to do the work.
  • Energy is additive. This means that the total energy of the system consisting of the N objects, is the sum of the energy of each of the bodies.
  • The kinetic energy is work to be done in order to provide the body with mass m, velocity V. It amounts to:
    Ekin.=m×V22E_{kin.} = \dfrac{m \times V^2}{2}
    where:
    • Ekin.E_{kin.} is the kinetic energy,
    • mm is the mass,
    • VV is the value of the velocity vector.
  • The potential energy at the point x0\vec{x_0} is work to be done to put the body at this point (moving them from infinity).
    • There are many different symbols used for potential energy depending on kind of science. Most common are U, V, or simply Epot..
    • Potential energy can be negative. This means that we don't need to perform the work to put the body in the current positions at all, but also it is needed to do the work to corrupt current system. In this case we say that system is in a bound. A good example here are chemical molecules that are associated systems, because we need to do work to break chemical bonds.
    • The function U=f(x)U=f(\vec{x}), which assigns value of potential energy to each point x is commonly called potential energy surface. Sometimes, when people want to mark that surface have more than 3 dimensions (degree of freedom), they use term hipersurface. The concept of (hiper)surface of potential energy is widely used for example in quantum chemistry or physics of the atomic nucleus.
  • There are many forms of energy for example: heat or electrical.
  • The basic energy unit in SI system is 1J (one jul), so it's the same as unit of work. However, for practical reasons many different units are used depending on kind of science for example:
    • elektronovolts (eV) in high-energy physics,
    • atomic units (au) in quantum chemistry,
    • calories in dietetic,
    • horsepower in automotive industry.
  • The average kinetic energy of single particle divided by the number of degrees of freedom is temperature of the system. Such concepts owe the development of statistical thermodynamics (physics), which made it possible to link the micro state (individual particles level) with macroscopic quantities (such as temperature, pressure). Previously, the concept of micro and macroscopic were independent. It is worth noting that the concept of temperature has only statistical meaning. This means for example that temperature for single particle has no meaning.
  • One of the fundamental laws of nature is the desire to minimize energy. There are no known causes of this fact, but an enormous amount of physical theory is based on this postulate. Very often the solution to a practical problem boils down to mininimalization energy problem. Examples include:
    • Molecular mechanics - the way of finding optimal molecule geometry using clasical Newton dynamic.
    • Variational methods - the set of general methods, that searches for wave functions, for which the system gives minimal average energy (formally the average value of the Hamiltonian). Good examples are Hartree-fock equations, which (together with Density Functional Theory - DFT) are the foundations of modern quantum-mechanical calculations.
    • Chemical reaction paths - sets of methods trying to search for optimal trace on energy surface.
    A common feature of all of the above examples, it is asking "what to do to reach a minimum of energy."
    From a mathematical point of view, that are classic optimization problems. Mathematical apparatus that deals with this kind of problem is - depending on whether we are looking for the numbers or functions - calculus or calculus of variations.
  • If we have the potential energy surface, we can get forces that operate in various points in the system. To do this we need to calculate the energy derivative dE/dx in point. This fact is due to the reversal of the definition of work (integral of the product of the displacement and the applied force). Such a procedure may be used for numerical optimization of the geometry of the system. To do this we need to repeat in loop (as long as there are forces in the system):
    • Compute forces working for each particle by computing derivate:
      F0=Ex0\vec{F_0} = \dfrac{\partial{E}}{\partial{\vec{x_0}}}
    • Move particles by computed forces.
    Above procedure is widely used in many numerical simulations for example in quantum chemistry.

How to convert#

  • Enter the number to field "value" - enter the NUMBER only, no other words, symbols or unit names. You can use dot (.) or comma (,) to enter fractions.
    Examples:
    • 1000000
    • 123,23
    • 999.99999
  • Find and select your starting unit in field "unit". Some unit calculators have huge number of different units to select from - it's just how complicated our world is...
  • And... you got the result in the table below. You'll find several results for many different units - we show you all results we know at once. Just find the one you're looking for.

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