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1 (joule) is equal to:
common use
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
joule  Show source$J$  J  1  The basic energy unit in the SI system. One joule corresponds to the work done by a force of one newton (1 N) by shifting the point of force application by one meter (1 m) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.$1\ J = 1\ N \cdot 1\ m$ 
calorie  Show source$cal$  cal  0.238845897  Heat unit standardized during Fifth International Conference on Water and Steam Properties (IAPWS), which took place in 1956 in London. Unit is an attempt to organize various calorie definitions by introducing socalled international calorie corresponding to exactly 4.868 of joule. See other calorie definitions to learn more.$1\ cal_{IT} \equiv 4.1868\ J$ 
kilocalorie  Show source$kcal$  kcal  0.000238846  Equivalent to one thousand of international calories (1000 cal_{IT}). Sometimes called also large calorie. See the calorie unit for more.$1\ kcal = 1000\ cal_{IT}$ 
kilowatthour  Show source$kW \times h$  kW·h  2.777777778×10^{7}  Unit used for electric cost pricing. One kilowatthour (1 kW·h) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one kilowatt (1 kW) within one hour (60 min).$1\ kW \cdot h = 1000\ W \cdot 60\ min = 1000\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot 3600\ \cancel{s} = 3.6\ MJ$ 
SI
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
yottajoule  Show source$YJ$  YJ  1×10^{24}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One yottajoule is equal to septylion of joules: $1\ YJ= 10^{24}\ J$ 
zettajoule  Show source$ZJ$  ZJ  1×10^{21}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One zettajoule is equal to sextillion of joules: $1\ ZJ= 10^{21}\ J$ 
exajoule  Show source$EJ$  EJ  1×10^{18}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One exajoule is equal to quintillion of joules: $1\ EJ= 10^{18}\ J$ 
petajoule  Show source$PJ$  PJ  1×10^{15}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One petajoule is equal to quadrillion of joules: $1\ PJ= 10^{15}\ J$ 
terajoule  Show source$TJ$  TJ  1×10^{12}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One terajoule is equal to trillion of joules: $1\ TJ= 10^{12}\ J$ 
gigajoule  Show source$GJ$  GJ  1×10^{9}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One gigajoule is equal to billion of joules: $1\ GJ= 10^{9}\ J$ 
megajoule  Show source$MJ$  MJ  0.000001  Derived energy unit in SI system. One megajoule is equal to million of joules: $1\ MJ=1000000\ J= 10^{6}\ J$ 
kilojoule  Show source$kJ$  kJ  0.001  Derived energy unit in SI system. One kilojoule is equal to thausand of joules: $1\ kJ=1000\ J= 10^{3}\ J$ 
hektojoule  Show source$hJ$  hJ  0.01  Derived energy unit in SI system. One hektojoule is equal to hundred of joules: $1\ hJ=100\ J= 10^{2}\ J$ 
joule  Show source$J$  J  1  The basic energy unit in the SI system. One joule corresponds to the work done by a force of one newton (1 N) by shifting the point of force application by one meter (1 m) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.$1\ J = 1\ N \cdot 1\ m$ 
decijoule  Show source$dJ$  dJ  10  Derived energy unit in SI system. One decijoule is equal to one tenth of joule: $1\ dJ=0.1\ J= 10^{1}\ J$ 
centijoule  Show source$cJ$  cJ  100  Derived energy unit in SI system. One centijoule is equal to one hundredth of joule: $1\ cJ=0.01\ J= 10^{2}\ J$ 
milijoule  Show source$mJ$  mJ  1000  Derived energy unit in SI system. One milijoule is equal to one thousandth of joule: $1\ mJ=0.001\ J= 10^{3}\ J$ 
microjoule  Show source$\mu J$  µJ  1000000  Derived energy unit in SI system. One microjoule is equal to one millionth of joule: $1\ \mu J=0.000001\ J= 10^{6}\ J$ 
nanojoule  Show source$nJ$  nJ  1000000000  Derived energy unit in SI system. One nanojoule is equal to one billionth of joule: $1\ nJ= 10^{9}\ J$ 
pikojoule  Show source$pJ$  pJ  1×10^{12}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One pikojoule is equal to one trillionth of joule: $1\ pJ= 10^{12}\ J$ 
femtojoule  Show source$fJ$  fJ  1×10^{15}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One femtojoule is equal to one quadrillionth of joule: $1\ fJ= 10^{15}\ J$ 
attojoule  Show source$aJ$  aJ  1×10^{18}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One attojoule is equal to one quintillionth of joule: $1\ aJ= 10^{18}\ J$ 
zeptojoule  Show source$zJ$  zJ  1×10^{21}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One zeptojoule is equal to one sextillionth of joule: $1\ zJ= 10^{21}\ J$ 
yoctojoule  Show source$yJ$  yJ  1×10^{24}  Derived energy unit in SI system. One yoctojoule is equal to one septillionth of joule: $1\ yJ= 10^{24}\ J$ 
British Thermal Unit (BTU) related
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
British thermal unit (thermochemical)  Show source$BTU_{th}$  BTU_{th}  0.000948452  An attempt to fix issue with various definitions of heat units. One thermodynamic British thermal unit (1 BTU_{TH}) corresponds exactly to 1.05587 kilojoules. See the other BTU definitions for more information.$1\ BTU_{TH} \equiv 1.05587\ kJ$ 
British thermal unit (ISO)  Show source$BTU_{ISO}$  BTU_{ISO}  0.000948317  An obsolete heat unit defined by ISO 314 standard. The unit was created by rounding up the British thermal IT unit. See the BTU _{IT}unit for more information.$1\ BTU_{ISO} \equiv 1.05506\ kJ$ 
British thermal unit (63 °F)  Show source$BTU_{63^\circ F}$  BTU_{63 °F}  0.000948227  A heat unit used in AngloSaxon countries. One British thermal unit defined for temperature sixtythree degrees fahrenheit (63°F) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) from sixtythree (63°F) to sixtyfour (64°F) degrees fahrenheit under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm).$1\ BTU_{TH} = \Delta Q_{63 \rightarrow 64^{\circ}F} \approx 1.0546\ kJ$ 
British thermal unit (60 °F)  Show source$BTU_{60^\circ F}$  BTU_{60 °F}  0.000948155  A heat unit used in the Canada. One British thermal unit defined for temperature sixty degrees fahrenheit (60°F) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) from sixty (60°F) to sixtyone (61°F) degrees fahrenheit under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm).$1\ BTU_{TH} = \Delta Q_{60 \rightarrow 61^{\circ}F} \approx 1054.68\ kJ$ 
British thermal unit (59 °F)  Show source$BTU_{59^\circ F}$  BTU_{59 °F}  0.000948043  A heat unit used in United States for natural gas pricing. One British thermal unit defined for temperature fiftynine degrees fahrenheit (59°F) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) from fiftynine (59°F) to sixty (60°F) degrees fahrenheit under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm).$1\ BTU_{TH} = \Delta Q_{59 \rightarrow 60^{\circ}F} \approx 1054.80\ kJ$ 
British thermal unit (International Table)  Show source$BTU_{IT}$  BTU_{IT}  0.000947817  A heat unit standardized during Fifth International Conference on Water and Steam Properties (IAPWS), which took place in 1956 in London. It was an attempt to organize various definitions of heat units by introducing the socalled an international British thermal unit exactly equal to 1.05505585262 kilojoules. See the other BTU unit definitions for more information.$1\ BTU_{IT} \equiv 1.05505585262\ kJ$ 
British thermal unit (mean)  Show source$BTU_{mean}$  BTU_{mean}  0.000947086  Obsolete heat unit. One average British thermal unit corresponds to the average amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) by one degree of fahrenheit. Unit is defined as 1/180 of the heat needed to bring water from melting point (32°F) to boiling (212°F).$1\ BTU_{\text{śr.}} = \frac{1}{180} \Delta Q_{32 \rightarrow 212^{\circ}F} \approx 1.05587\ kJ$ 
British thermal unit (39 °F)  Show source$BTU_{39^\circ F}$  BTU_{39}  0.00094369  A heat unit used in AngloSaxon countries. One British thermal unit defined for temperature thirtynine degrees fahrenheit (39°F) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) from thirtynine (39°F) to fourty (40°F) degrees fahrenheit under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm).$1\ BTU_{TH} = \Delta Q_{39 \rightarrow 40^{\circ}F} \approx 1.05967\ kJ$ 
Celsius heat unit (International Table)  Show source$CHU_{IT}$  CHU_{IT}  0.000526565  An obsolete heat unit used in AngloSaxon countries. One Celsius heat unit (1 chu) corresponds to the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water (1 lb) under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm) by one degree Celsius (1°C). $1\ chu \approx 1.89918\ kJ$ 
quad  Show source$$    9.478171203×10^{19}  Unit energy used to describe world power industry. One quad corresponds to one quadrillion of british thermal units (10^{15} BTU). See the BTU unit for more.$1\ \text{quad} = 10^{15}\ BTU_{IT}$ 
therm (U.S.)  Show source$$    9.48043428×10^{9}  Energy unit used by natural gas companies in the United States. One americal therm (1 therm US) is defined as one hundred thousand of british thermal units for temperature of fiftyninte deegres Fahrenheit (100,000 BTU_{59°F}), which approximately equals to amount of energy released while burning one hundred cubic feet of natural gas (100 cu ft). See the BTU unit for more.$1\ \text{therm (US)} = 100\ 000\ BTU_{\text{59°F}}$ 
therm (E.C.)  Show source$$    9.478171203×10^{9}  Therm unit used by engineers. One engineer therm (1 therm EC) equals to one one hundred thousand of international british thermal units (100,000 BTU_{IT}). See the therm (US) oraz BTU units for more.$1\ \text{therm (EC)} = 100\ 000\ BTU_{IT}$ 
Calories related
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
calorie (20 °C)  Show source$cal_{20^\circ C}$  cal_{20 °C}  0.239125756  Equivalent of energy needed to heat one gram (1 g) of water with temperature twenty degrees Celsius (20°C) under one atmosphere pressure (1 atm) by one degree (1°C).$1\ cal_{20^{\circ}C} = \Delta Q_{20 \rightarrow 21^{\circ}C} \approx 4.182\ J$ 
calorie (thermochemical)  Show source$cal_{th}$  cal_{th}  0.239005736  An attempt to sort out various calorie definitions. One thermodynamic calorie corresponds exactly to 4.184 joules. See the other calorie definitions for more information.$1\ cal_{TH} \equiv 4.184\ J$ 
calorie (15 °C)  Show source$cal_{15^\circ C}$  cal_{15 °C}  0.238920081  Equivalent of energy needed to heat one gram (1 g) of water with temperature fifteen degrees Celsius (15°C) under one atmosphere pressure (1 atm) by one degree (1°C).$1\ cal_{15^{\circ}C} = \Delta Q_{15 \rightarrow 16^{\circ}C} \approx 4.1855\ J$ 
calorie (International Table)  Show source$cal_{IT}$  cal_{IT}  0.238845897  Heat unit standardized during Fifth International Conference on Water and Steam Properties (IAPWS), which took place in 1956 in London. Unit is an attempt to organize various calorie definitions by introducing socalled international calorie corresponding to exactly 4.868 of joule. See other calorie definitions to learn more.$1\ cal_{IT} \equiv 4.1868\ J$ 
calorie (mean)  Show source$cal_{mean}$  cal_{mean}  0.238662345  Average energy needed to heat one gram (1 g) of water under pressure of one atmosphere (1 atm) by one degree Celsius (1°C). Defined as one hundredth (1/100) of heat needed to bring water from the melting point (0°C) to boiling (100°C).$1\ cal_{mean} = \frac{1}{100}\ \Delta Q_{0 \rightarrow 100^{\circ}C} \approx 4.190\ J$ 
calorie (3.98 °C)  Show source$cal_{3.98^\circ C}$  cal_{3.98 °C}  0.237840409  Equivalent of energy needed to heat one gram (1 g) of water with temperature 3.98 degrees Celsius (3.98°C) under one atmosphere pressure (1 atm) by one degree (1°C).$1\ cal_{3.98^{\circ}C} = \Delta Q_{3.98 \rightarrow 4.98^{\circ}C} \approx 4.2045\ J$ 
kilocalorie  Show source$kcal$  kcal  0.000238846  Equivalent to one thousand of international calories (1000 cal_{IT}). Sometimes called also large calorie. See the calorie unit for more.$1\ kcal = 1000\ cal_{IT}$ 
large calorie  Show source$Cal$  Cal  0.000238846  Alternative name for kilocalorie (1 kcal). See kilocalorie unit for more.$1\ Cal = 1\ kcal = 1000\ cal_{IT}$ 
thermie  Show source$th$  th  2.388458966×10^{7}  Equivalent to one thousand kilocalories (1000 kcal) or one million international calories (1,000,000 cal_{IT}). See the calorie or kilocalorie units for more.$1\ th = 1000\ kcal = 1\ 000\ 000\ cal_{IT}$ 
Displacement related (UK/US)
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
footpoundal  Show source$\text{ft pdl}$  ft pdl  23.730360404  An obsolete heat unit used in AngloSaxon countries. Equivalent to work done by a force of one poundal (1 pdl) by shifting the point of force application by one foot (1 ft) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.$\begin{aligned}1\ ft\ pdl &= 1\ ft \cdot 1\ pdl =\\&= 0.3048\ m \cdot 0.138254954\ N =\\&= 0.0421401099792\ m \cdot N =\\&= 0.0421401099792\ J\end{aligned}$ 
footpound force  Show source$\text{ft lbf}$  ft lbf  0.737562149  An obsolete heat unit used in AngloSaxon countries. Equivalent to work done by a one poundforce (1 lbf) by shifting the point of force application by one foot (1 ft) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.$\begin{aligned}1\ ft\ lbf &= 1\ ft \cdot 1\ lbf =\\&= 0.3048\ m \cdot 4.448221615\ N =\\&= 1.355817948252\ m \cdot N =\\&= 1.355817948252\ J\end{aligned}$ 
inchpound force  Show source$\text{in lbf}$  in lbf  8.850745791  An obsolete heat unit used in AngloSaxon countries. Equivalent to work done by a one poundforce (1 lbf) by shifting the point of force application by one inch (1 in) in a direction parallel to the direction of the force.$\begin{aligned}1\ in\ lbf &= 1\ in \cdot 1\ lbf =\\&= 0.0254\ m \cdot 0.112984829021\ N =\\&= 0.112984829021\ m \cdot N =\\&= 1.355817948252\ J\end{aligned}$ 
Pressure related (UK/US)
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
cubic foot of atmosphere  Show source$ft^3 \times atm$  cu ft atm; scf  0.000348529  An energy unit used in AngloSaxon countries. Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one cubic foot (1 cu ft) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).$\begin{aligned}1\ cu\ ft\ atm &= 1\ ft^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 0.028316847\ m^{\cancel{3}} \cdot 101325 \frac{N}{\cancel{m^2}} =\\&= 2869.204522275\ m \cdot N =\\&= 2.869204522275\ kJ\end{aligned}$ 
cubic yard of atmosphere  Show source$yd^3 \times atm$  cu yd atm; scy  0.000012908  An energy unit used in AngloSaxon countries. Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one cubic yard (1 cu yd) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).$\begin{aligned}1\ cu\ yd\ atm &= 1\ ft^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 0.764554858\ m^{\cancel{3}} \cdot 101325 \frac{N}{\cancel{m^2}} =\\&= 78233.07584485\ m \cdot N =\\&= 78.23307584485\ kJ\end{aligned}$ 
gallonatmosphere (US)  Show source$\text{US gal atm}$  US gal atm  0.002607175  An energy unit used in AngloSaxon countries. Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one US gallon (1 gal US) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).$\begin{aligned}1\ gal(US)\ atm &= 0.003785412\ m^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 383.5568709\ m \cdot N = 383.5568709\ J\end{aligned}$ 
gallonatmosphere (imperial)  Show source$\text{imp gal atm}$  imp gal atm  0.002170928  An energy unit used in AngloSaxon countries. Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one imperial gallon (1 gal UK) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).$\begin{aligned}1\ gal(UK)\ atm &= 0.00454609\ m^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 460.63256925\ m \cdot N = 460.63256925\ J\end{aligned}$ 
Pressure based (metric)
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
cubic centimetre of atmosphere  Show source$\text{cc atm; scc}$  cc atm; scc  9.869232667  Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one cubic centimeter (1 cm³) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm). Sometimes called also standard cubic centimetre.$\begin{aligned}1\ cc\ atm &= 1\ cm^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 10^{6}\ m^{\cancel{3}} \cdot 101325 \frac{N}{\cancel{m^2}} =\\&= 0.101325\ m \cdot N =\\&= 0.101325\ J\end{aligned}$ 
litreatmosphere  Show source$\text{l atm}$  l atm  0.009869233  Equivalent to the work to be done to compress gas with volume of one litre (1 l) at pressure of one atmospheres (1 atm).$\begin{aligned}1\ l\ atm &= 1\ dm^3 \cdot 101325\ Pa =\\&= 0.001\ m^{\cancel{3}} \cdot 101325 \frac{N}{\cancel{m^2}} =\\&= 101.325\ m \cdot N =\\&= 101.325\ J\end{aligned}$ 
physical
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
atomic unit of energy  Show source$au$  au  2.293712757×10^{17}  A unit of energy often used in quantum mechanical calculations. One atomic energy unit corresponds to two electron energies in a hydrogen atom in its ground state. Another name for this unit is hartree (1 Eh) or hartree's energy.$1\ au = 1\ E_h = \frac{e^2}{4 \pi \epsilon_0 a_0} = 4.359\ 743\ 81(34) \cdot 10^{18}\ J$Where:

hartree  Show source$E_h$  E_{h}  2.293712757×10^{17}  Another name for atomic unit of energy. See atomic unit of energy for more.$1\ E_h = 2\ Ry$ 
electronvolt  Show source$eV$  eV  6.241509125×10^{18}  A unit of energy used in various fields of physics and chemistry. One electronvolt (1 eV) corresponds to the energy that an electron receives or loses during acceleration within electric field with a potential difference of one volt (1 V). To calculate the value of one electronvolt in joules, we can multiply elementary charge (charge of single electron) by one volt.$\begin{aligned}1\ eV &= e \cdot 1\ V =\\&= 1.6021766208(98) \cdot 10^{19}C \cdot 1\ \frac{W}{A} =\\&= 1.6021766208(98) \cdot 10^{19}\ \cancel{A \cdot s} \cdot \frac{J}{\cancel{s \cdot A}} =\\&= 1.6021766208(98) \cdot 10^{19}\ J\end{aligned}$ 
kilojoule per mol  Show source$\frac{kJ}{mol}$  kJ/mol  6.02214076×10^{20}  Unit of energy per amount of substance unit. Widely used in thermodynamics to determine the energy of chemical reactions or phase transitions, e.g. enthalpy of evaporation.$1\ \frac{kJ}{mol}= \frac{1}{N_A}\ kJ = \frac{1000\ J}{6.02214076 \cdot 10^{23}} = 1.66053906717385 \cdot 10^{21}\ J$Where:

erg (cgs unit)  Show source$erg$  erg  10000000  Historic energy unit in centimetergramsecond system (CGS). One erg corresponds to the work done by force of one dyne (1 dyne) when the point of force application is shifted by one centimeter (1 cm) in a direction parallel to the direction of force.$1\ erg = 1\ dyn \cdot 1\ cm = \frac{10^{3}\ kg \cdot 10^{4}\ m}{s^2} = 10^{7}\ J$ 
rydberg  Show source$Ry$  Ry  4.587425513×10^{17}  A unit of energy used in atomic physics. One rydberg (1 Ry) corresponds to ionization energy of a hydrogen atom in the ground state.$1\ Ry = \frac{1}{2}\ E_h = \frac{e^2}{8 \pi \epsilon_0 a_0} = 2.179\ 871\ 905(17) \cdot 10^{18}\ J$Where:

time related
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
horsepowerhour  Show source$hp \times h$  hp·h  3.72506136×10^{7}  Amount of work done by an one horsepower engine (1 hp) within one hour (60 min).$\begin{aligned}1\ hp(I) \cdot h &= 745.69987158227022\ W \cdot 60\ min =\\&= 745.69987158227022\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot 3600\ \cancel{s} =\\&= 2.68451953769617\ MJ\end{aligned}$ 
wattsecond  Show source$W \times s$  W·s  1  Equivalent to one joule (1 J). One wattsecond (1 W·s) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one watt (1 W) within one second (1 s). See the joule unit to learn more.$1\ W \cdot s = 1\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot \cancel{s} = 1\ J$ 
kilowattsecond  Show source$kW \times s$  kW·s  0.001  Equivalent to one kilojoule (1 kJ) or one thousand joules (1000 J). One kilowattsecond (1 kW·s) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one kilowatt (1 kW) within one second (1 s). See the joule unit to learn more.$1\ kW \cdot s = 1\ \frac{1000\ J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot \cancel{s} = 1000\ J = 1\ kJ$ 
watthour  Show source$W \times h$  W·h  0.000277778  Unit used to measure electricity consumption. One watthour (1 W·h) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one watt (1 W) within one hour (60 min).$1\ W \cdot h = 1\ W \cdot 60\ min = 1\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot 3600\ \cancel{s} = 3.6\ kJ$ 
kilowatthour  Show source$kW \times h$  kW·h  2.777777778×10^{7}  Unit used for electric cost pricing. One kilowatthour (1 kW·h) corresponds to the amount of electric energy consumed (or approximately emited in the form of heat) by a device with power of one kilowatt (1 kW) within one hour (60 min).$1\ kW \cdot h = 1000\ W \cdot 60\ min = 1000\ \frac{J}{\cancel{s}} \cdot 3600\ \cancel{s} = 3.6\ MJ$ 
materials related
Unit  Symbol  Symbol (plain text)  Value  Notes 
barrel of oil equivalent  Show source$BOE$  BOE  1.633986928×10^{10}  A unit of energy used in the power industry. Burning one barrel (42 US gallons) of crude oil (1 BOE) corresponds to the release of about six million British thermal units (5,800,000 BTU). See the BTU unit for more information.$1\ BOE = 5.8 \cdot 10^6\ BTU_{59^{\circ}F} = 6.1178632\ GJ$ 
ton of TNT  Show source$tTNT$  tTNT  2.390057361×10^{10}  A unit used to determine amount of energy released in an explosion, e.g. to compare nuclear weapons. The explosion of one ton of TNT (1 tTNT) corresponds to release of about four gigajoules of energy (4 GJ). See the joule unit to learn more.$1\ tTNT = 4.184\ GJ$ 
ton of coal equivalent  Show source$TCE$  TCE  3.412084238×10^{11}  A unit of energy used in the power industry. Burning one ton of coal (1 TCE) corresponds to release about twentynine gigajoules of energy (29 GJ). See the joule unit to learn more.$1\ TCE = 29.3076\ GJ$ 
ton of oil equivalent  Show source$TOE$  TOE  2.388458966×10^{11}  A unit of energy used in the power industry. Burning one ton of crude oil (1 TOE) corresponds to release of about fortytwo gigajoules of energy (42 GJ). See the joule unit to learn more.$1\ TOE = 41.868\ GJ$ 
cubic foot of natural gas  Show source$$    9.478171203×10^{7}  Equivalent of amount of energy released while burning out one cubic foot (1 cu ft) of natural gas.$1\ ft^3\ \text{natural gas} \approx 1000\ BTU_{59^{\circ}F}$ 
Some facts
 Energy is the scalar physical quantity expressing the ability to do the work.
 Energy is additive. This means that the total energy of the system consisting of the N objects, is the sum of the energy of each of the bodies.
 The kinetic energy is work to be done in order to provide the body with mass m, velocity V. It amounts to:
$E_{kin.} = \dfrac{m \times V^2}{2}$where:
 $E_{kin.}$ is the kinetic energy,
 $m$ is the mass,
 $V$ is the value of the velocity vector.
 $E_{kin.}$ is the kinetic energy,
 The potential energy at the point $\vec{x_0}$ is work to be done to put the body at this point (moving them from infinity).
 There are many different symbols used for potential energy depending on kind of science. Most common are U, V, or simply E_{pot.}.
 Potential energy can be negative. This means that we don't need to perform the work to put the body in the current positions at all, but also it is needed to do the work to corrupt current system. In this case we say that system is in a bound. A good example here are chemical molecules that are associated systems, because we need to do work to break chemical bonds.
 The function $U=f(\vec{x})$, which assigns value of potential energy to each point x is commonly called potential energy surface. Sometimes, when people want to mark that surface have more than 3 dimensions (degree of freedom), they use term hipersurface. The concept of (hiper)surface of potential energy is widely used for example in quantum chemistry or physics of the atomic nucleus.
 There are many different symbols used for potential energy depending on kind of science. Most common are U, V, or simply E_{pot.}.
 There are many forms of energy for example: heat or electrical.
 The basic energy unit in SI system is 1J (one jul), so it's the same as unit of work. However, for practical reasons many different units are used depending on kind of science for example:
 elektronovolts (eV) in highenergy physics,
 atomic units (au) in quantum chemistry,
 calories in dietetic,
 horsepower in automotive industry.
 elektronovolts (eV) in highenergy physics,
 The average kinetic energy of single particle divided by the number of degrees of freedom is temperature of the system. Such concepts owe the development of statistical thermodynamics (physics), which made it possible to link the micro state (individual particles level) with macroscopic quantities (such as temperature, pressure). Previously, the concept of micro and macroscopic were independent. It is worth noting that the concept of temperature has only statistical meaning. This means for example that temperature for single particle has no meaning.
 One of the fundamental laws of nature is the desire to minimize energy. There are no known causes of this fact, but an enormous amount of physical theory is based on this postulate. Very often the solution to a practical problem boils down to mininimalization energy problem. Examples include:
 Molecular mechanics  the way of finding optimal molecule geometry using clasical Newton dynamic.
 Variational methods  the set of general methods, that searches for wave functions, for which the system gives minimal average energy (formally the average value of the Hamiltonian). Good examples are Hartreefock equations, which (together with Density Functional Theory  DFT) are the foundations of modern quantummechanical calculations.
 Chemical reaction paths  sets of methods trying to search for optimal trace on energy surface.
From a mathematical point of view, that are classic optimization problems. Mathematical apparatus that deals with this kind of problem is  depending on whether we are looking for the numbers or functions  calculus or calculus of variations.  Molecular mechanics  the way of finding optimal molecule geometry using clasical Newton dynamic.
 If we have the potential energy surface, we can get forces that operate in various points in the system. To do this we need to calculate the energy derivative dE/dx in point. This fact is due to the reversal of the definition of work (integral of the product of the displacement and the applied force). Such a procedure may be used for numerical optimization of the geometry of the system. To do this we need to repeat in loop (as long as there are forces in the system):
 Compute forces working for each particle by computing derivate:
$\vec{F_0} = \dfrac{\partial{E}}{\partial{\vec{x_0}}}$  Move particles by computed forces.
 Compute forces working for each particle by computing derivate:
How to convert
 Enter the number to field "value"  enter the NUMBER only, no other words, symbols or unit names. You can use dot (.) or comma (,) to enter fractions.
Examples: 1000000
 123,23
 999.99999
 Find and select your starting unit in field "unit". Some unit calculators have huge number of different units to select from  it's just how complicated our world is...
 And... you got the result in the table below. You'll find several results for many different units  we show you all results we know at once. Just find the one you're looking for.
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In December 2016 the Calculla website has been republished using new technologies and all calculators have been rewritten. Old version of the Calculla is still available through this link: v1.calculla.com. We left the version 1 of Calculla untouched for archival purposes.
Direct link to the old version: "Calculla v1" version of this calculator
Direct link to the old version: "Calculla v1" version of this calculator