# Beta version#

BETA TEST VERSION OF THIS ITEM

This online calculator is currently under heavy development. It may or it may NOT work correctly.

You CAN try to use it. You CAN even get the proper results.

However, please VERIFY all results on your own, as the level of completion of this item is NOT CONFIRMED.

Feel free to send any ideas and comments !

This online calculator is currently under heavy development. It may or it may NOT work correctly.

You CAN try to use it. You CAN even get the proper results.

However, please VERIFY all results on your own, as the level of completion of this item is NOT CONFIRMED.

Feel free to send any ideas and comments !

# Calculations data: ośrodek źródłowy i docelowy#

Source medium | ||

Substance name | ||

Density of substance | ||

Sound velocity in the medium | ||

Destination medium | ||

Substance name | ||

Density of substance | ||

Sound velocity in the medium |

# Results: what is happening at the medium boundary#

Source medium | ||

Density of substance | - | |

Sound velocity in the medium | - | |

Acoustic impedance | 0 | |

Destination medium | ||

Density of substance | 2500 | |

Sound velocity in the medium | 3800 | |

Acoustic impedance | 9500000 | |

Medium boundary | ||

Reflection coefficient by intensity (β) | 1 | |

Transmission coefficient by intensity (α) | 0 | |

Transmission loss in logarithmic scale (10 log α) | -inf |

# Other target materials#

Values calculated if the target material was the one in the table | |||

Substance name | Reflection coefficient $\beta = \frac{I_1}{I_2}$ | Transmission coefficient $\alpha = 1 - \beta$ | Transmission coefficient in logarithmic scale [dB]$10~log~\alpha$ |

aluminum (pure) | 1 | 0 | -inf |

brass | 1 | 0 | -inf |

cadmium | 1 | 0 | -inf |

copper (pure) | 1 | 0 | -inf |

gold | 1 | 0 | -inf |

iron | 1 | 0 | -inf |

iron, cast | 1 | 0 | -inf |

lead | 1 | 0 | -inf |

magnesium | 1 | 0 | -inf |

molybdenum | 1 | 0 | -inf |

monel | 1 | 0 | -inf |

nickel | 1 | 0 | -inf |

platinum | 1 | 0 | -inf |

silver | 1 | 0 | -inf |

steel, carbon | 1 | 0 | -inf |

steel, stainless 304 | 1 | 0 | -inf |

tin | 1 | 0 | -inf |

titanium | 1 | 0 | -inf |

tungsten | 1 | 0 | -inf |

uranium | 1 | 0 | -inf |

zinc | 1 | 0 | -inf |

glycerin | 1 | 0 | -inf |

ethanol | 1 | 0 | -inf |

liquid helium | 1 | 0 | -inf |

oil, petroleum | 1 | 0 | -inf |

mercury | 1 | 0 | -inf |

water 25°C | 1 | 0 | -inf |

water, sea | 1 | 0 | -inf |

ethanol | 1 | 0 | -inf |

ice (frozen water, 0°C) | 1 | 0 | -inf |

organic glass (plexiglass) | 1 | 0 | -inf |

quartz glass | 1 | 0 | -inf |

hydrogen | 1 | 0 | -inf |

carbon dioxide | 1 | 0 | -inf |

dry air (standard conditions, 25°C and 100 kPa) | 1 | 0 | -inf |

oxygen | 1 | 0 | -inf |

carbon dioxide | 1 | 0 | -inf |

aluminium oxide | 1 | 0 | -inf |

nylon | 1 | 0 | -inf |

polyethylene | 1 | 0 | -inf |

rubber, hard | 1 | 0 | -inf |

neoprene (polychloroprene) | 1 | 0 | -inf |

teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) | 1 | 0 | -inf |

fir wood | 1 | 0 | -inf |

pine wood | 1 | 0 | -inf |

neoprene (polychloroprene) | 1 | 0 | -inf |

teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) | 1 | 0 | -inf |

marble | 1 | 0 | -inf |

concrete | 1 | 0 | -inf |

# Some facts#

- When
**acoustic wave**encounters the medium boundary it may be**transmitted**to the second medium or it may be**reflected**(remain in the first medium). **How much energy**will be transferred between mediums**depends on the physical properties of the mediums**.- For
**plane wave**, which falls perpendicular to the boundary surface, the part of energy that remains in the first medium is determined by**reflection coefficient**:

$\beta = \left(\frac{Z_1 - Z_2}{Z_1 + Z_2}\right)^2$where:

**$\beta$**- intensity reflection coefficient,

**$Z_1$**- acoustic impedance of the first medium,

**$Z_2$**- acoustic impedance of the second medium.

- The range of
**reflection coefficient**is**from zero to one**. Reflection coefficient equal to one (β = 1) means that the wave is reflected completely. The reflection coefficient equal to zero (β = 0) means that the whole energy of the wave is being passed to the second medium (has been absorbed). - From the expression for reflection coefficient we can see:

- the reflection coefficient is directly proportional to the
**square difference of acoustic impedance**of the mediums:

$\beta \propto (\Delta Z)^2 \propto (Z_1 - Z_2)^2$ - the sound barrier (large reflection coefficient) is
**acoustic impedance difference**,

- because the acoustic impedance depends on the density (to the greatest extent), the greatest insulation is obtained on the gas-solid boundary (e.g. sound from the air is reflected off a wall made of concrete almost completely),

- the worst insulation can be obtained between mediums of similar impedance e.g. between two metal pipes,

**acoustic insulation**between two**solids**is**more difficult**to achieve than between a solid and a gas. The reason is smaller range of available acoustic impedances among solids than between materials with different states of aggregation,

- in the extreme case when both mediums have identical acoustic impedance (Z
_{1}= Z_{2}) the acoustic wave moves**like within one medium**.

- the reflection coefficient is directly proportional to the
- Starting from the
**law of conservation of energy**we can determine the remaining energy that has passed to the second medium. This calculated quantity is usually called**transmission coefficient**of the medium:

$\alpha = 1 - \beta = \frac{4~Z_1~Z_2}{(Z_1 + Z_2)^2}$where:

**$\alpha$**- intensity transmission coefficient,

**$\beta$**- intensity reflection coefficient,

**$Z_1$**- acoustic impedance of the first medium,

**$Z_2$**- acoustic impedance of the second medium.

- From the expression for the transmission coefficient we can see that
**sound cannot penetrate into the vacuum**(Z_{2}= 0).

# See also#

If you're interested in calculators related to acoustics, check out our other calculators:

- Sound intensity level (dB) - if you want to learn what is
**decibel**and how the**sound intensity level**is measured, - Sound velocity in materials - if you want to learn how the
**type of substance**affects**the speed of acoustic wave propagation**, - Acoustic impedance of substances - if you want to learn what is
**acoustic impedance**and how it depends on the**type of substance**, - Sound wave reflection - if you want to find out how an
**acoustic wave**behaves when it encounters an obstacle in the form of**media boundary**, - Mass law: single wall - if you're interested in building acoustics and would like to estimate the acoustic
**insulation of a single wall**, - Mass law: double wall - if you're interested in building acoustics and would like to estimate the acoustic
**insulation of a double wall**with an**air gap**between the walls, - Sound absorption coefficients - if you're interested in
**acoustic adaptation**of room and you would like to learn how different**materials absorb the acoustic wave**, - Noise propagation - if you want to learn how
**sound intensity level**changes with**distance from the source**, - Sound insulation countours - if you want to learn more about
**acoustic insulation assessment standards**used over the world, - Sound reduction index (SRI) - if you're searching for
**acoustic insulation**of popular**building materials**expressed in the coefficient**Rw**, - Sound transmission class (STC) - if you're searching for
**acoustic insulation**of popular**building materials**expressed by the index**STC**.

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