Table of solubility product constants of substances
Table shows solubility equilibriums of selected substances, mainly sparingly soluble salts and hydroxides.

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SubstanceMolecular formulaSolubility equilibrium
silver acetateAgCH3COO0.00194
silver arsenateAg3AsO41.03×10-22
silver bromateAgBrO30.0000538
silver bromideAgBr5.35×10-13
silver carbonateAg2CO38.46×10-12
silver chlorideAgCl1.77×10-10
silver chromateAg2CrO41.12×10-12
silver cyanideAgCN5.97×10-17
Silver iodate (V)AgIO33.17×10-8
silver iodideAgI8.52×10-17
silver oxalateAg2C2O45.4×10-12
silver phosphateAg3PO48.89×10-17
silver sulfideAg2S5.01×10-50
silver (I) sulfate (VI)Ag2SO40.000012
silver (I) sulfate (IV)Ag2SO30.00015
silver thiocyanateAgSCN1.03×10-12
aluminum phosphateAlPO49.84×10-21
barium bromateBa(BrO3)20.000243
barium carbonateBaCO31×10-8
barium chromate (VI)BaCrO41.17×10-10
barium fluorideBaF21.84×10-7
barium iodateBa(IO3)24.01×10-9
barium sulfate (VI)BaSO41.08×10-10
barium sulfate (IV)BaSO35×10-10
barium selenate (VI)BaSeO43.4×10-8
bismuth (III) jodideBiI37.71×10-19
bismuth (III) arsenateBiAsO44.43×10-10
calcium carbonate (calcite)CaCO33.36×10-9
calcium fluorideCaF23.45×10-11
calcium phosphateCa3(PO4)22.07×10-33
calcium sulphate (VI)CaSO40.0000493
calcium suplhate (VI) dihydrateCaSO4 · 2H2O0.0000314
cadmium carbonateCdCO31×10-12
cadmium arsenateCd3(AsO4)22.2×10-33
cadmium fluorideCdF20.00644
cadmium phosphateCd3(PO4)22.53×10-33
cadmium sulfideCdS2.51×10-26
cobalt (II) phosphateCo3(PO4)22.05×10-35
yttrium (III) carbonateY2(CO3)31.03×10-31
caesium perchlorateCsClO40.00395
caesium jodateCsIO40.00000516
copper (I) bromideCuBr6.27×10-9
copper (I) jodideCuI1.27×10-12
copper (II) sulfideCuS3.98×10-35
copper (II) phosphateCu3(PO4)21.4×10-37
iron (II) carbonateFeCO33.13×10-11
iron (II) carbonateFeS2.51×10-18
iron (III) phosphate dihydrateFePO4 · 2H2O9.91×10-16
mercury (I) fluorideHg2F20.0000031
mercury (I) bromideHg2Br26.4×10-23
mercury (I) chlorideHg2Cl21.43×10-18
mercury (I) jodideHg2I25.2×10-29
mercury (I) sulfate (VI)Hg2SO46.5×10-7
mercury (II) bromideHgBr26.2×10-20
mercury (II) jodideHgI22.9×10-29
mercury (II) sulfideHgS7.94×10-53
potassium perchlorateKClO40.0105
potassium periodateKIO40.000371
lanthanum jodateLa(IO3)37.5×10-12
lithium phosphateLi3PO42.37×10-11
lithium carbonateLi2CO30.000815
magnesium carbonateMgCO30.00000682
magnesium fluorideMgF25.16×10-11
magnesium phosphateMg3(PO4)21.04×10-24
manganese (II) carbonateMnCO32.24×10-11
manganese (II) oxalate dihydrateMnC2O4 · 2H2O1.7×10-7
nickel phosphateNi3(PO4)24.74×10-32
nickel carbonateNiCO31.42×10-7
lead bromide (II)PbBr20.0000066
lead chloride (II)PbCl20.000017
lead (II) iodidePbI29.8×10-9
lead (II) iodidePbF23.3×10-8
lead (II) carbonatePbCO37.4×10-14
lead (II) sulfate (VI)PbSO42.53×10-8
lead (II) sulfidePbS1.26×10-28
radium sulfate (VI)RaSO43.66×10-11
rubidium perchlorateRbClO40.003
scandium (III) fluorideScF35.81×10-24
tin (II) sulfideSnS2.51×10-24
thallium (I) chromateTl2CrO48.67×10-13
thallium (I) bromideTlBr0.00000371
yttrium (III) fluorideYF38.62×10-21
zinc carbonateZnCO31.46×10-10
zinc arsenateZn3(AsO4)22.8×10-28
zinc selenideZnSe3.6×10-26
zinc sulfideZnS3.98×10-25
zinc jodate dihydrateZn(IO3)2 · 2H2O0.0000041
zinc oxalate dihydrateZnC2O4 · 2H2O1.38×10-9


SubstanceMolecular formulaSolubility equilibrium
yttrium (III) hydroxideY(OH)31×10-22
zinc hydroxideZn(OH)23×10-17
thallium (III) hydroxideTl(OH)31.68×10-44
scandium hydroxideSc(OH)32.22×10-31
tin (II) hydroxideSn(OH)25.45×10-27
lead (II) hydroxidePb(OH)21.43×10-20
nickel hydroxideNi(OH)25.48×10-16
magnesium hydroxideMg(OH)25.61×10-12
copper (II) hydroxideCu(OH)21.99×10-20
cobalt (II) hydroxideCo(OH)25.92×10-15
cadmium (II) hydroxideCd(OH)27.2×10-15
calcium hydroxideCa(OH)20.00000502
beryllium hydroxideBe(OH)26.92×10-22
barium hydroxide octahydrateBa(OH)2 · 8H2O0.000255
iron (II) hydroxideFe(OH)24.87×10-17
iron (III) hydroxideFe(OH)32.79×10-39
aluminium hydroxideAl(OH)35×10-33
silver (I) hydroxideAgOH1.5×10-8

Some facts#

  • If the substance MmXxM_mX_x dissociates in the solution according to the reaction:
    MmXx    mMx++xXmM_mX_x \iff m M^{x+} + x X^{m-}
    then its solubility equilibrium is defined as below:
    Ksp=[Mx+]m[Xm]xK_{sp} = \left[\mathrm M^{x+}\right]^m \left[\mathrm X^{m-}\right]^x

    • KspK_{sp} - solubility quilibrium of substance,
    • [Mx+]m\left[\mathrm M^{x+}\right]^m - molar concentration of Mx+M^{x+} ions in saturated solution,
    • [Xm]x\left[\mathrm X^{m-}\right]^x - molar concentration of Xm+X^{m+} ions in saturated solution.
  • The solubility equilibrium is measured for saturated solution.
  • The solubility equilibrium is specific for a given substance.
  • Alternative name for solubility equilibrium is solubility product constant.
  • The solubility equilibrium is varies depending on the temperature. Chemical tables most often give values for 298K (25°C).
  • If product of ion concentrations in real solution exceeds the value of solubility equilibrium then it forms the precipitate.
  • If we know the solubility equilibrium and dissociation reaction, then we can calculate molar solubility of substance:
    S=Kspxxmmx+mS = \sqrt[x+m]{\dfrac{K_{sp}}{x^{x} m^{m}}}
    • SS - molar solubility of substance MmXxM_mX_x,
    • KspK_{sp} - solubility equilibrium,
    • xx - stoichiometric coefficient determined by dissociation reaction (see above),
    • mm - stoichiometric coefficient determined by dissociation reaction (see above).

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