Table of common cooling mixtures
Table shows composition (including mass ratio) of common cooling mixtures i.e. mixtures used to achieve low temperatures.

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Cooling mixtures#

Mixture temperature [°C]Mixture compositionMass ratio
0water + ice1:1
-2water + ammonium chloride10 : 3
-12water + sodium nitrate (III)10 : 6
-15water + ammonium thiocyanate10 : 13
-15ice + sodium acetate10 : 9
-18ice + ammonium chloride10 : 3
-21ice + sodium chloride3 : 1
-25ice + ammonium nitrate (V)1 : 1
-28ice + sodium bromide100 : 65
-30ice + potassium chloride1 : 1
-33ice + magnesium chloride10 : 3
-37ice + sulfuric acid (VI) 66%1 : 1
-40ice + calcium chloride hexahydrate100 : 125
-55ice + calcium chloride hexahydrate100 : 143
-25ice + ammonium chloride + potassium nitrate (V)1 : 1 : 1
-68ethanol + dry ice
-86acetone + dry ice
-98diethyl ether + dry ice
-190liquid nitrogen
13dry ice + p-xylene
12dry ice + dioxane
6dry ice + cyclohexane
5dry ice + benzene
2dry ice + formamide
-12liquid nitrogen + cycloheptane
-15dry ice + benzyl alcohol
-22dry ice + tetrachloroethylene
-23dry ice + carbon tetrachloride
-25dry ice + 1,3-dichlorobenzene
-29dry ice + o-xylene
-32dry ice + m-toluidine
-41dry ice + acetonitrile
-42dry ice + pyridine
-47dry ice + m-xylene
-56dry ice + n-octane
-60dry ice + isopropyl ether
-78dry ice + acetone
-84liquid nitrogen + ethyl acetate
-89liquid nitrogen + n-butanol
-94liquid nitrogen + hexane
-94liquid nitrogen + acetone
-95liquid nitrogen + toluene
-98liquid nitrogen + methanol
-104liquid nitrogen + cyclohexene
-116liquid nitrogen + ethanol
-131liquid nitrogen + n-pentane
-160liquid nitrogen + isopentane

Some facts#

  • Cooling mixtures are mixtures of substances forming solutions with a low solidification temperature.
  • Such mixtures may be, for example:
    • a mixture of ice and cooking salt (NaCl) in a weight ratio of 3: 1, allows to reach the temperature of -21.1 °C,
    • a mixture of ethyl alcohol and so-called dry ice (CO2 in the solid state), allows you to reach temperatures down to -68 °C,
    • a mixture of ice and calcium chloride hexahydrate (CaCl·6H2O) in a weight ratio of 100: 43, allows to reach a temperature of -55 °C,
    • etc.
  • An example of using a cooling mixture in everyday life is sprinkling the roads with salt in the winter. Salt water has lower solidification temperature than pure water without admixtures. Thanks to this, despite the negative temperatures (i.e., those at which the water would freeze) we avoid icing of the road surface.
  • One of the most effective known cooling substances is liquid nitrogen . It is not a mixture, but often for practical reasons it is listed alongside coolant mixtures. When using liquid nitrogen, a temperature of -190 °C can be achieved.

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