Table of elementary particles properties
Table shows basic properties of elementary particles.

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Historical treat as elementary

ParticleSymbolMass [kg]Relative mass [u]Charge [c]Relative charge
Protonp, Hp,\ H1.672614×10-271.007276611.6726×10-191
Neutronn, 01nn,\ _{0}^{1}n1.67492×10-271.008665200
Electrone, β, 1 0ne,\ \beta^-,\ ^{\ 0}_{-1}n9.109558×10-310.0005485931.60219×10-19-1


ParticleSymbolMass [MeV]Life time [s]Relative charge
Electron neutrinoee<7.3×106<7.3\times 10^{-6}stable\text{stable}0
Mionmm105.66105.662.197×1062.197\times 10^{-6}-1
Mion neutrinonmn_m<0.25<0.25stable\text{stable}0
Tautt1784.11784.13.1×10133.1\times 10^{-13}-1
Tau neutrinontn_t<70<70stable\text{stable}0


ParticleSymbolMass [GeV/c²]Relative charge
Quark upuu0.002÷0.0080.002 \div 0.0082/3
Quark downdd0.005÷0.0150.005 \div 0.015-1/3
Quark strangess100÷300100 \div 300-1/3
Quark charmcc1.3÷1.71.3 \div 1.72/3
Quark beautybb4.7÷5.34.7 \div 5.3-1/3
Quark truthtt>170>1702/3


ParticleSymbolMass [MeV]Life time [s]
Charged pionp+,pp^{+}, p^{-}139.57139.572.6×1082.6 \times 10^{-8}
Neutral pionp0p^{0}134.98134.980.8×10160.8 \times 10^{-16}
Charged caonK+,KK^{+}, K^{-}493.68493.681.2×1081.2 \times 10^{-8}
Neutral caonK0,K~0K^0, \widetilde{K}^0497.67497.670.9×1010÷5.2×1080.9 \times 10^{-10} \div 5.2 \times 10^{-8}
Meson hh0h^0547.30547.302.4×10192.4 \times 10^{-19}


ParticleSymbolMass [MeV]Life time [s]
Protonp,p~p, \widetilde{p}938.27938.27stable\text{stable}
Neutronn,n~n, \widetilde{n}939.56939.560.9×1030.9 \times 10^3
Hiperon ΛΛ,Λ~\Lambda, \widetilde{\Lambda}1115.681115.682.6×10102.6 \times 10^{-10}
Hiperon Σ+Σ+,Σ~+\Sigma^{+}, \widetilde{\Sigma}^{+}1189.371189.370.8×10100.8 \times 10^{-10}
Hiperon S0S0,Σ~0S^0, \widetilde{\Sigma}^{0}1192.641192.647.4×10207.4 \times 10^{-20}
Hiperon Σ−Σ,Σ~\Sigma^{-}, \widetilde{\Sigma}^{-}1197.451197.451.5×10101.5 \times 10^{-10}
Hiperon Ξ0Ξ0,Ξ~0\Xi^0, \widetilde{\Xi}^01314.91314.92.9×10102.9 \times 10^{-10}
Hiperon Ξ-Ξ,Ξ~\Xi^-, \widetilde{\Xi}^-1321.321321.321,6×10101,6 \times 10^{-10}
Hiperon Ω-Ω,Ω~\Omega^-, \widetilde{\Omega}^-1672.451672.450.8×10100.8 \times 10^{-10}

Some facts

  • Historically, elementary particles were such objects that have no known internal structure that is, colloquially speaking they are indivisible.
  • With the development of science, particles that were formerly considered indivisible turned out to be assembled from two or more other, smaller particles. Thus, they ceased to be elementary in a literal sense.
  • Currently, elementary particles are used interchangeably with the concept of subatomic particles, i.e. those that are "more elementary", "smaller" than the atom.
  • Traditionally, the elementary particles that make up the atoms are:
    • proton - positively charged particle being part of the atomic nucleus,
    • neutron - particle with a mass similar to proton, however without electric charge ,
    • electron - a particle with a negligible mass (in comparison with proton mass) with negative electric charge.
  • The inert composite atom is of N protons, the same number of electrons and a certain number of neutrons. Because the numbers of electrons and protons in the atom are identical, their charges are balanced and the atom as a whole is electrically neutral.
  • Atoms that differ only in the amount of neutrons are called isotopes .
  • The science department that deals with the study of elementary particles is elementary particle physics.
  • Currently, as many as several hundred of various elementary particles are known. We consider quarks, leptons and bosons transmitting interactions to be "truly" elemental (i.e. without internal structure).
  • Elementary particles can be divided into stable and unstable. The currently known permanent particles are: proton, electron, all neutrinos and photon.

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