Table shows common classification of electromagnetic waves based on frequency (wavelength). Also, example methods of producing/generating and applications for given wavelengths are presented.

Common name | Frequency range | Wavelength range | Sources and methods of production | Example usage |

Low fequency radiation | < 10 kHz | > 30 km | acoustic transducers, LC and RC generators | electroacoustics, energy industry, telephony |

Radio waves | 10 kHz - 3 THz | 100 µm - 30 km | LC, RC generators, masers | radio, television, telecommunications, radiolocation, radioastronomy, medicine |

Infrared | 300 GHz - 395 THz | 759 nm - 1 mm | heated bodies, lasers, radiant lamps, the sun | telecommunications, medicine, heating, material processing, IR spectroscopy |

Visible range | 395 THz - 790 THz | 380 nm - 759 nm | mercury lamps, heated bodies, lasers, the sun, luminescence | telecommunications, photography, optics, quantitative analysis |

Ultraviolet (UV) | 790 THz - 30 PHz | 10 nm - 380 nm | lasers, mercury lamps, sun, gas discharge, quartz lamps | telecommunications, photography, optics, quantitative analysis |

X-ray | 30 PHz - 30 EHz | 10 pm - 10 nm | X-ray tube, decay of radioactive elements | telecommunications, photography, optics |

Gamma radiation | > 3 EHz | < 100 pm | cosmic rays, accelerators, X-ray tubes, decay of radioactive elements | medicine, defectoscopy, nuclear physics |

Common name | Frequency range | Wavelength range | Sources and methods of production | Example usage |

Radio waves (long) | 10 kHz - 300 kHz | 1 km - 30 km | LC, RC generators, masers | radio in ITU I region (Europa, Africa) |

Radio waves (medium) | 300 kHz - 3 MHz | 100 m - 1 km | LC, RC generators, masers | radio, non-directional radio beacons, DGPS reference stations, meteorological reports |

Radio waves (short) | 3 MHz - 30 MHz | 10 m - 100 m | LC, RC generators, masers | amateur radio (ham radio) |

Radio waves (ultra-short, VHF) | 30 MHz - 300 MHz | 10 dm - 10 m | LC, RC generators, masers | terrestrial television, radio broadcasting, pager network |

Radio waves (UHF) | 300 MHz - 3 GHz | 10 cm - 10 dm | LC, RC generators, masers | television, mobile telephony, Wi-Fi networks, bluetooth |

Micro-waves | 3 GHz - 3 THz | 100 µm - 10 cm | vacuum tubes, field-effect transistor (FET), tunnel diodes, Gunn diodes, IMPATT diodes | microwave radars, radar speed measurement, inter-satellite communication, microwave oven |

Color | Frequency range | Wavelength range |

Red | 389 THz - 491 THz | 611 nm - 771 nm |

Yellow | 517 THz - 535 THz | 561 nm - 580 nm |

Green | 535 THz - 612 THz | 490 nm - 561 nm |

Blue | 612 THz - 625 THz | 480 nm - 490 nm |

Violet | 652 THz - 789 THz | 380 nm - 460 nm |

Band symbol | Frequency range | Wavelength range |

1 GHz - 2 GHz | 1 dm - 3 dm | |

2 GHz - 4 GHz | 8 cm - 1 dm | |

4 GHz - 8 GHz | 4 cm - 8 cm | |

8 GHz - 12 GHz | 3 cm - 4 cm | |

12 GHz - 18 GHz | 2 cm - 3 cm | |

18 GHz - 26 GHz | 1 cm - 2 cm | |

26 GHz - 40 GHz | 8 mm - 1 cm | |

300 GHz - 300 GHz | 1 mm - 1 mm |

Band symbol | Frequency range | Wavelength range |

< 250 MHz | > 1 m | |

250 MHz - 500 MHz | 6 dm - 1 m | |

500 MHz - 1 GHz | 3 dm - 6 dm | |

1 GHz - 2 GHz | 1 dm - 3 dm | |

2 GHz - 3 GHz | 10 cm - 1 dm | |

3 GHz - 4 GHz | 8 cm - 10 cm | |

4 GHz - 6 GHz | 5 cm - 8 cm | |

6 GHz - 8 GHz | 4 cm - 5 cm | |

8 GHz - 10 GHz | 3 cm - 4 cm | |

10 GHz - 20 GHz | 2 cm - 3 cm | |

20 GHz - 40 GHz | 8 mm - 2 cm | |

40 GHz - 60 GHz | 5 mm - 8 mm | |

60 GHz - 100 GHz | 3 mm - 5 mm |

**Electromagnetic waves**are**disturbances of electromagnetic field**displaced in space.- Electromagnetic waves
**propagate at the speed of light**. - One of the most basic parameters describing a wave (not only electromagnetic) is its
**frequency**. - Since the
**frequency of the wave is directly related to its length**, we can equally**determine the wave by giving its length**. The relationship between the length and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave is as follows:

$\lambda = \frac{c}{\nu}$

where:

- $\lambda$ - wavelength,

- $\nu$ - wave frequency,

- $c$ - speed of light.

- $\lambda$ - wavelength,
- The
**waves classification**based on the wavelength or frequency**is conventional**and has the**practical meaning**. This means that individual sources may deliver slightly different bands. - The classification based on wavelength
**does not have to be strictly consistent**with frequency based one. Often**for convenience**(i.e. to avoid fractional values), we**round speed of light**to 300,000 km/s when converting one classification to another. - The properties of electromagnetic waves are described by
**Maxwell's equations**:

$\begin{aligned} & \nabla \times \vec{E} = -\frac{\partial \vec{B}} {\partial {t}} \\ & \nabla \times \vec{B} = \mu \vec{j} +\mu \varepsilon \frac{\partial \vec{E}} {\partial {t}} \\ & \varepsilon \nabla \cdot \vec{E} = \rho \\ & \nabla \cdot \vec{B} = 0 \end{aligned}$

gdzie:

- $\nabla$ - Nabla's operator (del),

- $\vec{B}$ - magnetic induction,

- $\vec{E}$ - electric field,

- $\varepsilon$ - medium permittivity,

- $\mu$ - medium permeability.

- $\nabla$ - Nabla's operator (del),
- Historically, phenomena related to electricity and magnetism (and therefore the electric and magnetic field and their changes) were two separate branches of science. Maxwell's equations gave a coherent description
**joining both fields into one**. Thanks to this, there is no need to speak separately about the magnetic and electric field anymore. We can simply use the term**electromagnetic field**instead. - Electric and magnetic fields are
**special cases**of the electromagnetic field. Despite a coherent mathematical apparatus, which**eliminates the need to distinguish between these two types of fields**, sometimes the concepts of magnetic or electric field are used separately if it's handful.

Tags:

electromagnetic_waves · waves_classification · radio_waves_bands · microwaves · light_spectrum · color_frequencies · color_wavelengths

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