Table shows basic properties of elementary particles.

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Particle | Symbol | Mass [kg] | Relative mass [u] | Charge [c] | Relative charge |

Proton | $p,\ H$ | 1.672614×10^{-27} | 1.00727661 | 1.6726×10^{-19} | 1 |

Neutron | $n,\ _{0}^{1}n$ | 1.67492×10^{-27} | 1.0086652 | 0 | 0 |

Electron | $e,\ \beta^-,\ ^{\ 0}_{-1}n$ | 9.109558×10^{-31} | 0.000548593 | 1.60219×10^{-19} | -1 |

Particle | Symbol | Mass [MeV] | Life time [s] | Relative charge |

Electron | $n_e$ | $0.511$ | $\text{stable}$ | -1 |

Electron neutrino | $e$ | $<7.3\times 10^{-6}$ | $\text{stable}$ | 0 |

Mion | $m$ | $105.66$ | $2.197\times 10^{-6}$ | -1 |

Mion neutrino | $n_m$ | $<0.25$ | $\text{stable}$ | 0 |

Tau | $t$ | $1784.1$ | $3.1\times 10^{-13}$ | -1 |

Tau neutrino | $n_t$ | $<70$ | $\text{stable}$ | 0 |

Particle | Symbol | Mass [GeV/c²] | Relative charge |

Quark up | $u$ | $0.002 \div 0.008$ | 2/3 |

Quark down | $d$ | $0.005 \div 0.015$ | -1/3 |

Quark strange | $s$ | $100 \div 300$ | -1/3 |

Quark charm | $c$ | $1.3 \div 1.7$ | 2/3 |

Quark beauty | $b$ | $4.7 \div 5.3$ | -1/3 |

Quark truth | $t$ | $>170$ | 2/3 |

Particle | Symbol | Mass [MeV] | Life time [s] |

Charged pion | $p^{+}, p^{-}$ | $139.57$ | $2.6 \times 10^{-8}$ |

Neutral pion | $p^{0}$ | $134.98$ | $0.8 \times 10^{-16}$ |

Charged caon | $K^{+}, K^{-}$ | $493.68$ | $1.2 \times 10^{-8}$ |

Neutral caon | $K^0, \widetilde{K}^0$ | $497.67$ | $0.9 \times 10^{-10} \div 5.2 \times 10^{-8}$ |

Meson h | $h^0$ | $547.30$ | $2.4 \times 10^{-19}$ |

Particle | Symbol | Mass [MeV] | Life time [s] |

Proton | $p, \widetilde{p}$ | $938.27$ | $\text{stable}$ |

Neutron | $n, \widetilde{n}$ | $939.56$ | $0.9 \times 10^3$ |

Hiperon Λ | $\Lambda, \widetilde{\Lambda}$ | $1115.68$ | $2.6 \times 10^{-10}$ |

Hiperon Σ^{+} | $\Sigma^{+}, \widetilde{\Sigma}^{+}$ | $1189.37$ | $0.8 \times 10^{-10}$ |

Hiperon S^{0} | $S^0, \widetilde{\Sigma}^{0}$ | $1192.64$ | $7.4 \times 10^{-20}$ |

Hiperon Σ− | $\Sigma^{-}, \widetilde{\Sigma}^{-}$ | $1197.45$ | $1.5 \times 10^{-10}$ |

Hiperon Ξ^{0} | $\Xi^0, \widetilde{\Xi}^0$ | $1314.9$ | $2.9 \times 10^{-10}$ |

Hiperon Ξ^{-} | $\Xi^-, \widetilde{\Xi}^-$ | $1321.32$ | $1,6 \times 10^{-10}$ |

Hiperon Ω^{-} | $\Omega^-, \widetilde{\Omega}^-$ | $1672.45$ | $0.8 \times 10^{-10}$ |

- Historically,
**elementary particles**were such objects that have no known**internal structure**that is, colloquially speaking they are indivisible. - With the development of science, particles that were formerly considered indivisible turned out to be
**assembled**from two or more other, smaller particles. Thus, they ceased to be**elementary**in a literal sense. - Currently, elementary particles are used interchangeably with the concept of
**subatomic particles**, i.e. those that are "more elementary", "smaller" than the atom. - Traditionally, the elementary particles that make up the atoms are:

**proton**-**positively charged**particle being part of the atomic nucleus,

**neutron**- particle with a mass similar to proton, however**without electric charge**,

**electron**- a particle with a negligible mass (in comparison with proton mass) with**negative electric charge**.

- The inert composite atom is of N protons, the same number of electrons and a certain number of neutrons. Because the numbers of electrons and protons in the atom are identical, their charges are balanced and the atom as a whole is
**electrically neutral**. - Atoms that differ only in the amount of neutrons are called
**isotopes**. - The science department that deals with the study of elementary particles is
**elementary particle physics**. - Currently, as many as
**several hundred**of various elementary particles are known. We consider**quarks**,**leptons**and**bosons**transmitting interactions to be "truly" elemental (i.e. without internal structure). - Elementary particles can be divided into
**stable**and unstable. The currently known permanent particles are:**proton**,**electron**, all**neutrinos**and**photon**.

Tags:

elementary_particles · fundamental_particles · subatom_particles · classification_of_elementary_particles

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