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Specific heat of substances table
Table shows specific heat capacity of selected gases, solids and liquids.

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metals

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
aluminum (pure)Al900
brass-375
bronze, manganese-370
bronze, phosphor-370
cadmium-234
chromium-452
cobalt-435
copper (pure)-385
goldAu129
ironFe444
lead-160
magnesium-1050
magnesium, alloy-1010
manganese-460
molybdenum-272
nickel-461
platinumPt133
siliconSi705
silver-237
steel, carbon-490
tin-228
titanium-523
tungsten-132
uranium-116
zinc-388

liquids

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
acetone(CH3)2CO2150
glycerinC3H5(OH)32386
ethanolC2H5OH112.5
oil, petroleum-2130
gasoline-2220
mercuryHg139
water 0°CH2O4189.9
water 25°CH2O4150
methanolCH3OH81.13
ethylene glycolC2H4(OH)2150.7
phenolC6H5OH127.5
formic acidHCOOH99
lactic acidCH3CH(OH)COOH127.6
acetate acidCH3COOH123.1
propionic acidCH3CH2COOH152.8
benzaldehydeC6H5COH172
methylamineCH3NH249.8
phenylamine (aniline)C6H5NH2199.6
benzeneC6H6135.8
orthoxyleneC6H4(CH3)2187.9
metaxyleneC6H4(CH3)2183.3
paraxyleneC6H4(CH3)2183.7
chlorobenzeneC6H5Cl145.6
bromobenzeneC6H5Br155.4
pyridineC5H5N132.7
diethyl ethere(C2H5)2O172.5
nitromethaneCH3NO2106
nitrobenzeneC6H5NO2187.3
ethyl acetateCH3COOC2H5170
n-octaneC8H18254.1
butter acidCH3CH2CH2COOH177.7
ethyl formateHCOOC2H5144
pyrroleC4H5N127.7
formaideHCONH2107.9
acetophenoneC8H8O227.6
acetonitrileC2H3N144.3
acetylacetoneC5H8O2208.2
benzyl alcoholC7H8O217.9
benzonitrileC7H5N190.3
acetic anhydrideC4H6O3168.2
bromoethaneC2H5Br101
methyl methacrylateC5H8O2191.2
N-methylanilineC7H9N207.1
methyl formateC2H4O2120
methyl acetateC3H6O2141.9

alcohols

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
ethanolC2H5OH112.5
methanolCH3OH81.13
ethylene glycolC2H4(OH)2150.7
benzyl alcoholC7H8O217.9

other materials

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
ice (frozen water, 0°C)H2O1760
asphalt, crushed-920
brick-900
cement-1550
paper-1336
window glass-815
organic glass (plexiglass)-2440

other inorganic

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
ammoniaNH32190
urea (carbonyl diamide)CO(NH2)293.1

gases

Molecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
Specific heat (Cv)
[J / (kg × K)]
ammoniaNH321901660
heliumHe51903120
hydrogenH21430010163
methaneCH435.7-
nitrogenN21030735
carbon dioxideCO2844655
dry air (normal conditions, 0°C and 1013,25 hPa)-1003716
n-buthaneC4H1097.4-
ethene (ethylene)C2H442.86-
ethyneC2H244.04-
formaldehyde (methanal)HCHO35.39-
bromochlorofluoroiodomethaneCBrCIFI83.76-
bromomethaneCH3Br42.5-
1,3-butadienC4H6133.2-
chloroethaneC2H5Cl62.34-
methanethiolCH4S50.3-

hydrocarbons

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
methaneCH435.7
n-buthaneC4H1097.4
ethene (ethylene)C2H442.86
ethyneC2H244.04
benzeneC6H6135.8
orthoxyleneC6H4(CH3)2187.9
metaxyleneC6H4(CH3)2183.3
paraxyleneC6H4(CH3)2183.7
n-octaneC8H18254.1
naphthaleneC10H8165.3
antraceneC14H10207.9
1,3-butadienC4H6133.2

oxides

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
carbon dioxideCO2844

plastics

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
bakelite-1380
nylon-1310
polycarbonate-1100
polyethylene-1550
rubber, hard-2010

wood

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
balsa wood-1700
cork wood-2000
bamboo wood-1680
pine wood-1300
larch wood-1400
alder wood-1400
birch-tree wood-1900
maple wood-1600
oak wood-2400
beech wood-1300
ash wood-1600

phenols

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
phenolC6H5OH127.5

carboxylic acids

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
formic acidHCOOH99
lactic acidCH3CH(OH)COOH127.6
oxalic acid(COOH)2105.9
acetate acidCH3COOH123.1
propionic acidCH3CH2COOH152.8
salicylic acidOHC6H4COOH165.3
benzoic acidC6H5COOH146.8
butter acidCH3CH2CH2COOH177.7
palmitic acidC15H31COOH460.7
stearic acidC17H35COOH562
succinic acidHOOC(CH2)2COOH152.9
fumaric acidHOOCCHCHCOOH142
maleic acidHOOCCHCHCOOH137
phthalic acidC6H4(COOH)2188.1

solids

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
oxalic acid(COOH)2105.9
salicylic acidOHC6H4COOH165.3
benzoic acidC6H5COOH146.8
naphthaleneC10H8165.3
antraceneC14H10207.9
palmitic acidC15H31COOH460.7
stearic acidC17H35COOH562
succinic acidHOOC(CH2)2COOH152.9
fumaric acidHOOCCHCHCOOH142
maleic acidHOOCCHCHCOOH137
phthalic acidC6H4(COOH)2188.1
2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid)C6H2(OH)(NO2)3239.7
urea (carbonyl diamide)CO(NH2)293.1
acetamideCH3CONH291.3
ß-D-fructoseC6H12O6230
ß-D-glucoseC6H12O6221
saccharoseC12H22O11427
ethyl benzoateC9H10O246
benzophenoneC13H10O223
phthalic anhydrideC8H4O3161.8
maleic anhydrideC4H2O3120
biphenylC12H10197.1
glycineC2H5NO299.2
citric acidC6H8O7226.5
sodium acetateC2H3O2Na80.3

other organic

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
benzaldehydeC6H5COH172
chlorobenzeneC6H5Cl145.6
bromobenzeneC6H5Br155.4
pyridineC5H5N132.7
diethyl ethere(C2H5)2O172.5
formaldehyde (methanal)HCHO35.39
nitromethaneCH3NO2106
nitrobenzeneC6H5NO2187.3
2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid)C6H2(OH)(NO2)3239.7
pyrroleC4H5N127.7
formaideHCONH2107.9
acetamideCH3CONH291.3
ß-D-fructoseC6H12O6230
ß-D-glucoseC6H12O6221
saccharoseC12H22O11427
acetophenoneC8H8O227.6
acetonitrileC2H3N144.3
acetylacetoneC5H8O2208.2
benzophenoneC13H10O223
benzonitrileC7H5N190.3
phthalic anhydrideC8H4O3161.8
maleic anhydrideC4H2O3120
acetic anhydrideC4H6O3168.2
biphenylC12H10197.1
bromochlorofluoroiodomethaneCBrCIFI83.76
bromoethaneC2H5Br101
bromomethaneCH3Br42.5
chloroethaneC2H5Cl62.34
glycineC2H5NO299.2
citric acidC6H8O7226.5
methyl methacrylateC5H8O2191.2
methanethiolCH4S50.3
N-methylanilineC7H9N207.1

amines

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
methylamineCH3NH249.8
phenylamine (aniline)C6H5NH2199.6

esters

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
ethyl acetateCH3COOC2H5170
ethyl formateHCOOC2H5144
ethyl benzoateC9H10O246
methyl formateC2H4O2120
methyl acetateC3H6O2141.9

salts

SubstanceMolecular formulaSpecific heat (Cp)
[J / (kg × K)]
sodium acetateC2H3O2Na80.3

Some facts

  • Specific heat is a physical quantity determining the amount of energy (heat) that should be supplied (transferred) to one unit of substance mass to raise the temperature by one unit.
  • The basic specific heat unit in the SI system is joule per kilogram per kelvin:
    Jkg×K\frac{J}{kg × K}
  • Specific heat is a property of substance (the so-called material constant). Also, it depends on external conditions: pressure and temperature.
  • The specific heat tells us how difficult it is to heat the given body. Substances with low specific heat change their temperature easily, whereas high ones require much more energy delivered to achieve identical effect.
  • To calculate the specific heat of the selected substance, we can use the following formula:
    c=ΔQm×ΔTc = \frac{\Delta Q}{m \times \Delta T}
    where:
    • cc - specific heat of the substance,
    • ΔQ\Delta Q - amount of heat delivered,
    • mm - mass of the heated sample,
    • ΔT\Delta T - noted temperature change.
  • Due to the high compressibility of gases, two values of specific heat are given in their case:
    • CpC_p - specific heat under constant pressure,
    • CvC_v - specific heat under constant volume.
    *) Compressibility is the property of a substance meaning that substance changes volume significantly under pressure.

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