Table of electrochemical potentials of elements
Table shows electrochemical potential of selected elements i.e. so-called galvanic series.

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Galvanic series

Element nameElement symbolChemical reaction on electrodePotential relative to hydrogen electrode [V]
LithiumLiLi++eLiLi^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Li-3
RubidiumRbRb++eRbRb^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Rb-2.97
PotassiumKK++eKK ^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons K-2.92
RadiumRaRa2++2eRaRa^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ra-2.92
BariumBaBa2++2eBaBa^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ba-2.9
StrontiumSrSr2++2eSrSr^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Sr-2.89
CalciumCaCa2++2eCaCa^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ca-2.84
SodiumNaNa++eNaNa^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Na-2.71
LanthanumLaLa3++3eLaLa^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons La-2.52
MagnesiumMgMg2++2eMgMg^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Mg-2.38
YttriumYY2++2eYY ^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Y-2.37
BerylliumBeBe2++2eBeBe^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Be-1.7
AluminiumAlAl3++3eAlAl^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Al-1.66
NiobiumNbNb3++3eNbNb^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Nb-1.1
ManganeseMnMn2++2eMnMn^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Mn-1.05
ZincZnZn2++2eZnZn^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Zn-0.76
ChromiumCrCr3++3eCrCr^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Cr-0.71
GalliumGaGa3++3eGaGa^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ga-0.56
IronFeFe2++2eFeFe^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Fe-0.44
CadmiumCdCd2++2eCdCd^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Cd-0.4
ThaliumTlTl++eTlTl^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Tl-0.33
IndiumInIn3++3eInIn^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons In-0.33
CobaltCoCo2++2eCoCo^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Co-0.28
NickelNiNi2++2eNiNi^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ni-0.24
MolybdeniumMoMo3++3eMoMo^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Mo-0.2
TinSnSn2++2eSnSn^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Sn-0.14
LeadPbPb2++2ePbPb^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Pb-0.13
HydrogenH2H++2eH22H^{+} +2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons H_20
AntimonySbSb3++3eSbSb^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Sb0.2
BismuthBiBi3++3eBiBi^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Bi0.23
CopperCuCu2++2eCuCu^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Cu0.34
RutheniumRuRu2++2eRuRu^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ru0.45
SilverAgAg++eAgAg^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ag0.8
OsmiumOsOs2++2eOsOs^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Os0.85
MercuryHgHg2++2eHgHg^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Hg0.85
PalladiumPdPd2++2ePdPd^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Pd0.85
IridiumIrIr3++3eIrIr^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ir1.15
PlatinumPtPt2++2ePtPt^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Pt1.2
GoldAuAu3++3eAuAu^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Au1.42

Some facts

  • Galwanic series (voltage, electrochemical) sets up elements according to their standard potential.
  • The standard potential is measured relative to the hydrogen electrode. The potential of this electrode is assumed to be equal to zero.
  • The position of the element in the galvanic series corresponds to its chemical activity.
  • Metal located lower in the galvanic series (i.e. metal with a lower normal potential) can displace atoms of other metals from their salts.
  • Metals whose standard potential is less than the potential of a hydrogen electrode can displace hydrogen atoms from water. Such metals are usually called active metals or non-noble metals.
    ⓘ Example: Sodium displaces hydrogen atoms from water to form a sodium base:
    2Na+2H2O2NaOH+H22Na + 2H_2O \rightarrow 2NaOH + H_2\uparrow
  • The lower potential of the element, the stronger reducer it is.
  • The higher potential of the element, the stronger oxidiser it is.

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