Table of electrochemical potentials of elements
Table shows electrochemical potential of selected elements i.e. so-called galvanic series.

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# Galvanic series

 Element name Element symbol Chemical reaction on electrode Potential relative to hydrogen electrode [V] Lithium Li $Li^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Li$ -3 Rubidium Rb $Rb^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Rb$ -2.97 Potassium K $K ^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons K$ -2.92 Radium Ra $Ra^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ra$ -2.92 Barium Ba $Ba^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ba$ -2.9 Strontium Sr $Sr^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Sr$ -2.89 Calcium Ca $Ca^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ca$ -2.84 Sodium Na $Na^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Na$ -2.71 Lanthanum La $La^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons La$ -2.52 Magnesium Mg $Mg^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Mg$ -2.38 Yttrium Y $Y ^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Y$ -2.37 Beryllium Be $Be^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Be$ -1.7 Aluminium Al $Al^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Al$ -1.66 Niobium Nb $Nb^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Nb$ -1.1 Manganese Mn $Mn^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Mn$ -1.05 Zinc Zn $Zn^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Zn$ -0.76 Chromium Cr $Cr^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Cr$ -0.71 Gallium Ga $Ga^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ga$ -0.56 Iron Fe $Fe^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Fe$ -0.44 Cadmium Cd $Cd^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Cd$ -0.4 Thalium Tl $Tl^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Tl$ -0.33 Indium In $In^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons In$ -0.33 Cobalt Co $Co^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Co$ -0.28 Nickel Ni $Ni^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ni$ -0.24 Molybdenium Mo $Mo^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Mo$ -0.2 Tin Sn $Sn^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Sn$ -0.14 Lead Pb $Pb^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Pb$ -0.13 Hydrogen H $2H^{+} +2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons H_2$ 0 Antimony Sb $Sb^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Sb$ 0.2 Bismuth Bi $Bi^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Bi$ 0.23 Copper Cu $Cu^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Cu$ 0.34 Ruthenium Ru $Ru^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ru$ 0.45 Silver Ag $Ag^{+} +e ^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ag$ 0.8 Osmium Os $Os^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Os$ 0.85 Mercury Hg $Hg^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Hg$ 0.85 Palladium Pd $Pd^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Pd$ 0.85 Iridium Ir $Ir^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Ir$ 1.15 Platinum Pt $Pt^{2+}+2e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Pt$ 1.2 Gold Au $Au^{3+}+3e^{-} \rightleftharpoons Au$ 1.42

# Some facts

• Galwanic series (voltage, electrochemical) sets up elements according to their standard potential.
• The standard potential is measured relative to the hydrogen electrode. The potential of this electrode is assumed to be equal to zero.
• The position of the element in the galvanic series corresponds to its chemical activity.
• Metal located lower in the galvanic series (i.e. metal with a lower normal potential) can displace atoms of other metals from their salts.
• Metals whose standard potential is less than the potential of a hydrogen electrode can displace hydrogen atoms from water. Such metals are usually called active metals or non-noble metals.
ⓘ Example: Sodium displaces hydrogen atoms from water to form a sodium base:
$2Na + 2H_2O \rightarrow 2NaOH + H_2\uparrow$
• The lower potential of the element, the stronger reducer it is.
• The higher potential of the element, the stronger oxidiser it is.

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