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Properties of periodic signals table
Table shows properties of common periodic signals (sine, square, triangle etc.) such as absolute mean value, effective value or shape factor.

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Periodic signals

Type of signalGraphAbsolute mean valueRoot Mean Square (RMS)Waveform factorCrest factorTotal Harmonic Distortion h1Total Harmonic Distortion h2
Constant signal (DC)11111111--
Sine2π0,637\frac{2}{\pi}\approx 0,637120,707\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\approx 0,707π221,11\frac{\pi}{2\sqrt{2}}\approx 1,1121,414\sqrt{2}\approx 1,4140000
Sine (full-wave rectification)2π0,637\frac{2}{\pi}\approx 0,637120,707\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\approx 0,707π221,11\frac{\pi}{2\sqrt{2}}\approx 1,1121,414\sqrt{2}\approx 1,4140,225\approx 0,2250,219\approx 0,219
Sine (half-wave rectification)1π0,318\frac{1}{\pi}\approx 0,31812=0,5\frac{1}{2} = 0,5π21,571\frac{\pi}{2}\approx 1,571220,441\approx 0,4410,404\approx 0,404
Triangle symmetric12=0,5\frac{1}{2} = 0,5130,577\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\approx 0,577231,155\frac{2}{\sqrt{3}}\approx 1,15531,732\sqrt{3}\approx 1,732π49610,121\sqrt{\frac{\pi^4}{96}-1}\approx 0,121196π40,120\sqrt{1-\frac{96}{\pi^4}}\approx 0,120
Square symmetric (50% fill)11111111π2810,483\sqrt{\frac{\pi^2}{8}-1}\approx 0,48318π20,435\sqrt{1-\frac{8}{\pi^2}}\approx 0,435
Sawtooth12=0,5\frac{1}{2} = 0,5130,577\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\approx 0,577231,155\frac{2}{\sqrt{3}}\approx 1,15531,732\sqrt{3}\approx 1,732π2610,803\sqrt{\frac{\pi^2}{6}-1}\approx 0,80316π20,626\sqrt{1-\frac{6}{\pi^2}}\approx 0,626

What is the meaning of each calculator field ?

  • Type of signal - the name of the signal, usually comes from the mathematical function that describes the signal (sinusoidal, square etc.).
  • Graph - graphical representation of the signal in the form of a graph, the graph is normalized to one and shows one period.
  • Absolute mean value - average value of the signal without sign (absolute value):
    ARV=1T0Tx(t)dtARV = \frac{1}{T}\int\limits_0^T{|x(t)|dt}
    where:
    • T - signal period (e.g. 2π2\pi for sine signal),
    • t - time,
    • x(t) - signal value in time t.
  • Root Mean Square (RMS) - The effective value of the alternating current is the value of the direct current, which in the course of time equal to the period of alternating current will cause the same thermal effect as the given AC signal (alternating current). It's statistical value defined as:
    RMS=1T0Tx2(t)dtRMS = \sqrt{\frac{1}{T}\int\limits_{0}^{T}\,x^{2}(t)dt}
    where:
    • T - signal period (e.g. 2π2\pi for sine signal),
    • t - time,
    • x(t) - signal value in time t.
  • Waveform factor - the ratio of the rms value to the mean of the absolute value:
    kf=RMSARVk_f = \frac{RMS}{ARV}
    where:
    • RMSRMS - root mean value (effective value),
    • AVRAVR - mean absolute value.
  • Crest factor - peak (maximum) value to RMS ratio:
    kc=XmaxRMSk_c = \frac{X_{max}}{RMS}
    where:
    • XmaxX_{max} - maximum signal value (peak value),
    • RMSRMS - root mean square (effective value).
  • Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) - a factor determining how much the signal deviates from the sinusoidal signal, defined as:
    h1=n=2Xn2X1h_{1}=\frac{\sqrt{\sum\limits_{n=2}^{\infty}X_{n}^{2}}}{X_{1}}
    or
    h2=n=2Xn2n=1Xn2h_{2}=\frac{\sqrt{\sum\limits_{n=2}^{\infty}X_{n}^{2}}}{\sqrt{\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty}X_{n}^{2}}}
    where:
    • X1X_1 - effective value (RMS) of base component,
    • XnX_n - effective value (RMS) of n-th harmonic.

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