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TeX commands table (cheatsheet)
Common TeX (and TeX based systems such as LaTeX, KaTeX, MathJax etc.) commands grouped in one place. Quick TeX cheatsheet/crib helpful while writing any scientific text containing math formulas like mathematical or physical publications.

Accents

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
a'
aa'
\grave{a}
aˋ\grave{a}
\overleftarrow{AB}
AB\overleftarrow{AB}
\overrightarrow{AB}
AB\overrightarrow{AB}
a''
aa''
\hat{\theta}
θ^\hat{\theta}
\underleftarrow{AB}
\underleftarrow{AB}
\underrightarrow{AB}
\underrightarrow{AB}
a^{\prime}
aa^{\prime}
\widehat{ac}
ac^\widehat{ac}
\overleftrightarrow{AB}
AB\overleftrightarrow{AB}
\overbrace{AB}
AB\overbrace{AB}
\acute{a}
aˊ\acute{a}
\mathring{g}
g˚\mathring{g}
\underleftrightarrow{AB}
\underleftrightarrow{AB}
\underbrace{AB}
AB\underbrace{AB}
\bar{y}
yˉ\bar{y}
\tilde{a}
a~\tilde{a}
\overgroup{AB}
ABundefined\overgroup{AB}
\overlinesegment{AB}
ABundefined\overlinesegment{AB}
\breve{a}
a˘\breve{a}
\widetilde{ac}
ac~\widetilde{ac}
\undergroup{AB}
undefined\undergroup{AB}
\underlinesegment{AB}
undefined\underlinesegment{AB}
\check{a}
aˇ\check{a}
\vec{F}
F\vec{F}
\overleftharpoon{ac}
ac\overleftharpoon{ac}
\overrightharpoon{ac}
ac\overrightharpoon{ac}
\dot{a}
a˙\dot{a}
\overline{AB}
AB\overline{AB}
\Overrightarrow{AB}
AB\Overrightarrow{AB}
\utilde{AB}
~\utilde{AB}
\ddot{a}
a¨\ddot{a}
\underline{AB}
AB\underline{AB}

Delimeters

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
(x)
(x)(x)
\lgroup x \rgroup
x\lgroup x \rgroup
\lceil x \rceil
x\lceil x \rceil
\uparrow
\uparrow
[x]
[x][x]
\lbrack x \rbrack
[x]\lbrack x \rbrack
\lfloor x \rfloor
x\lfloor x \rfloor
\downarrow
\downarrow
\{x\}
{x}\{x\}
\lbrace x \rbrace
{x}\lbrace x \rbrace
\lmoustache x \rmoustache
x\lmoustache x \rmoustache
\updownarrow
\updownarrow
<x>
<x><x>
\langle x \rangle
x\langle x \rangle
\lt x \gt
<x>\lt x \gt
\Uparrow
\Uparrow
|
|
\vert
\vert
\ulcorner x \urcorner
x\ulcorner x \urcorner
\Downarrow
\Downarrow
\|
\|
\Vert
\Vert
\llcorner x \lrcorner
x\llcorner x \lrcorner
\Updownarrow
\Updownarrow
\lvert x \rvert
x\lvert x \rvert
\lVert x \rVert
x\lVert x \rVert
\backslash
\\backslash

Environments (matrixes, equations, etc.)

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\begin{matrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
\end{matrix}
abcd\begin{matrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{matrix}
\begin{array}{c|c}
   a & b \\
   c & d
\end{array}
abcd\begin{array}{c|c} a & b \\ c & d \end{array}
\begin{aligned}
   a&=b+c \\
   d+e&=f
\end{aligned}
a=b+cd+e=f\begin{aligned} a&=b+c \\ d+e&=f \end{aligned}
\begin{pmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
\end{pmatrix}
(abcd)\begin{pmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{pmatrix}
\begin{bmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
\end{bmatrix}
[abcd]\begin{bmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{bmatrix}
\begin{alignedat}{2}
   10&x+ &3&y = 2 \\
    3&x+&13&y = 4
\end{alignedat}
10x+3y=23x+13y=4\begin{alignedat}{2} 10&x+ &3&y = 2 \\ 3&x+&13&y = 4 \end{alignedat}
\begin{vmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
\end{vmatrix}
abcd\begin{vmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{vmatrix}
\begin{Vmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
\end{Vmatrix}
abcd\begin{Vmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{Vmatrix}
\begin{gathered}
   a=b \\
   e=b+c
\end{gathered}
a=be=b+c\begin{gathered} a=b \\ e=b+c \end{gathered}
\begin{Bmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
\end{Bmatrix}
{abcd}\begin{Bmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{Bmatrix}
x = \begin{cases}
   a &\text{if } b \\
   c &\text{if } d
\end{cases}
x={aif bcif dx = \begin{cases} a &\text{if } b \\ c &\text{if } d \end{cases}

Annotation

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\cancel{5}
5\cancel{5}
\bcancel{5}
5\bcancel{5}
\xcancel{ABC}
ABC\xcancel{ABC}
\sout{abc}
abc\sout{abc}
\not =
̸=\not =
\overbrace{a+b+c}^{\text{note}}
a+b+cnote\overbrace{a+b+c}^{\text{note}}
\underbrace{a+b+c}_{\text{note}}
a+b+cnote\underbrace{a+b+c}_{\text{note}}
\boxed{\pi=\frac c d}
π=cd\boxed{\pi=\frac c d}

Overlap

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
{=}\mathllap{/\,}
=/{=}\mathllap{/\,}
\left(x^{\smash{2}}\right)
(x2)\left(x^{\smash{2}}\right)
\mathrlap{\,/}{=}
/=\mathrlap{\,/}{=}
\sqrt{\smash[b]{y}}
y\sqrt{\smash[b]{y}}
\sum_{\mathclap{1\le i\le j\le n}} x_{ij}
1ijnxij\sum_{\mathclap{1\le i\le j\le n}} x_{ij}

Vertical layout

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
x_n
xnx_n
\stackrel{!}{=}
=!\stackrel{!}{=}
a \atop b
aba \atop b
e^x
exe^x
\overset{!}{=}
=!\overset{!}{=}
a\raisebox{0.25em}{b}c
abca\raisebox{0.25em}{b}c
_u^o
uo_u^o
\underset{!}{=}
=!\underset{!}{=}

Logic and set theory

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\forall
\forall
\complement
\complement
\therefore
\therefore
\neg
¬\neg
\lnot
¬\lnot
\exists
\exists
\subset
\subset
\because
\because
\emptyset
\emptyset
\varnothing
\varnothing
\nexists
\nexists
\supset
\supset
\mapsto
\mapsto
\in
\in
\mid
\mid
\to
\to
\implies
\implies
\notin
\notin
\land
\land
\gets
\gets
\impliedby
\impliedby
\ni
\ni
\lor
\lor
\leftrightarrow
\leftrightarrow
\iff
\iff
\notni
̸\notni

Big operators

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\sum
\sum
\prod
\prod
\bigvee
\bigvee
\bigotimes
\bigotimes
\int
\int
\coprod
\coprod
\bigwedge
\bigwedge
\bigoplus
\bigoplus
\iint
\iint
\intop
\intop
\bigcap
\bigcap
\bigodot
\bigodot
\iiint
\iiint
\smallint
\smallint
\bigcup
\bigcup
\biguplus
\biguplus
\oint
\oint
\bigsqcup
\bigsqcup

Binary operators

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
+
++
\cdot
\cdot
\gtrdot
\gtrdot
x \pmod a
x(moda)x \pmod a
-
-
\cdotp
\cdotp
\intercal
\intercal
\land
\land
/
//
\centerdot
\centerdot
\centerdot
\centerdot
\rhd
\rhd
*
*
\circ
\circ
\leftthreetimes
\leftthreetimes
\rightthreetimes
\rightthreetimes
\amalg
⨿\amalg
\circledast
\circledast
\ldotp
.\ldotp
\rtimes
\rtimes
\And
&\And
\circledcirc
\circledcirc
\lor
\lor
\setminus
\setminus
\ast
\ast
\circleddash
\circleddash
\lessdot
\lessdot
\smallsetminus
\smallsetminus
\barwedge
\barwedge
\Cup
\Cup
\lhd
\lhd
\sqcap
\sqcap
\bigcirc
\bigcirc
\cup
\cup
\ltimes
\ltimes
\sqcup
\sqcup
\bmod
mod\bmod
\curlyvee
\curlyvee
x \pod a
x(a)x \pod a
\times
×\times
\boxdot
\boxdot
\curlywedge
\curlywedge
\mp
\mp
\unlhd
\unlhd
\boxminus
\boxminus
\div
÷\div
\odot
\odot
\unrhd
\unrhd
\boxplus
\boxplus
\divideontimes
\divideontimes
\ominus
\ominus
\uplus
\uplus
\boxtimes
\boxtimes
\dotplus
\dotplus
\oplus
\oplus
\vee
\vee
\bullet
\bullet
\doublebarwedge
\doublebarwedge
\otimes
\otimes
\veebar
\veebar
\Cap
\Cap
\doublecap
\doublecap
\oslash
\oslash
\wedge
\wedge
\cap
\cap
\doublecup
\doublecup
\pm
±\pm
\wr
\wr

Binomial coefficients

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\binom{n}{k}
(nk)\binom{n}{k}
\dbinom{n}{k}
(nk)\dbinom{n}{k}
\left\langle n \atop k \right\rangle
nk\left\langle n \atop k \right\rangle
{n}\choose{k}
(nk){n}\choose{k}
\tbinom{n}{k}
(nk)\tbinom{n}{k}

Fractions

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\frac{a}{b}
ab\frac{a}{b}
\dfrac{a}{b}
ab\dfrac{a}{b}
{a}/{b}
a/b{a}/{b}
{a}\over{b}
ab{a}\over{b}
\tfrac{a}{b}
ab\tfrac{a}{b}

Math operators

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\operatorname{asin} x
asinx\operatorname{asin} x
\arcsin
arcsin\arcsin
\cotg
cotg\cotg
\ln
ln\ln
\det
det\det
\arccos
arccos\arccos
\coth
coth\coth
\log
log\log
\gcd
gcd\gcd
\arctan
arctan\arctan
\csc
csc\csc
\sec
sec\sec
\inf
inf\inf
\arctg
arctg\arctg
\ctg
ctg\ctg
\sin
sin\sin
\lim
lim\lim
\arcctg
arcctg\arcctg
\cth
cth\cth
\sinh
sinh\sinh
\liminf
lim inf\liminf
\arg
arg\arg
\deg
deg\deg
\sh
sh\sh
\limsup
lim sup\limsup
\ch
ch\ch
\dim
dim\dim
\tan
tan\tan
\max
max\max
\cos
cos\cos
\exp
exp\exp
\tanh
tanh\tanh
\min
min\min
\cosec
cosec\cosec
\hom
hom\hom
\tg
tg\tg
\Pr
Pr\Pr
\cosh
cosh\cosh
\ker
ker\ker
\th
th\th
\sup
sup\sup
\cot
cot\cot
\lg
lg\lg

Sqrt and power

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\sqrt{x}
x\sqrt{x}
\sqrt[3]{x}
x3\sqrt[3]{x}
a^x
axa^x

Relations

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\stackrel{!}{=}
=!\stackrel{!}{=}
=
==
<
<<
>
>>
:
::
\curlyeqsucc
\curlyeqsucc
\gtrapprox
\gtrapprox
\perp
\perp
\succapprox
\succapprox
\dashv
\dashv
\gtreqless
\gtreqless
\pitchfork
\pitchfork
\succcurlyeq
\succcurlyeq
\dblcolon
::\dblcolon
\dblcolon
::\dblcolon
\gtreqqless
\gtreqqless
\prec
\prec
\succeq
\succeq
\doteq
\doteq
\gtrless
\gtrless
\precapprox
\precapprox
\succsim
\succsim
\approx
\approx
\Doteq
\Doteq
\gtrsim
\gtrsim
\preccurlyeq
\preccurlyeq
\Supset
\Supset
\approxeq
\approxeq
\doteqdot
\doteqdot
\in
\in
\preceq
\preceq
\supset
\supset
\asymp
\asymp
\eqcirc
\eqcirc
\Join
\Join
\precsim
\precsim
\supseteq
\supseteq
\backepsilon
\backepsilon
\eqcolon
:\eqcolon
\le
\le
\propto
\propto
\supseteqq
\supseteqq
\backsim
\backsim
\Eqcolon
::\Eqcolon
\leq
\leq
\risingdotseq
\risingdotseq
\thickapprox
\thickapprox
\backsimeq
\backsimeq
\eqqcolon
=:\eqqcolon
\leqq
\leqq
\shortmid
\shortmid
\thicksim
\thicksim
\between
\between
\Eqqcolon
=::\Eqqcolon
\leqslant
\leqslant
\shortparallel
\shortparallel
\trianglelefteq
\trianglelefteq
\bowtie
\bowtie
\eqsim
\eqsim
\lessapprox
\lessapprox
\sim
\sim
\triangleq
\triangleq
\bumpeq
\bumpeq
\eqslantgtr
\eqslantgtr
\lesseqgtr
\lesseqgtr
\simeq
\simeq
\trianglerighteq
\trianglerighteq
\Bumpeq
\Bumpeq
\eqslantless
\eqslantless
\lesseqqgtr
\lesseqqgtr
\smallfrown
\smallfrown
\varpropto
\varpropto
\circeq
\circeq
\equiv
\equiv
\lessgtr
\lessgtr
\smallsmile
\smallsmile
\vartriangle
\vartriangle
\colonapprox
:\colonapprox
\fallingdotseq
\fallingdotseq
\lesssim
\lesssim
\smile
\smile
\vartriangleleft
\vartriangleleft
\Colonapprox
::\Colonapprox
\frown
\frown
\ll
\ll
\sqsubset
\sqsubset
\vartriangleright
\vartriangleright
\coloneq
:\coloneq
\ge
\ge
\lll
\lll
\sqsubseteq
\sqsubseteq
\vcentcolon
:\vcentcolon
\Coloneq
::\Coloneq
\geq
\geq
\llless
\llless
\sqsupset
\sqsupset
\vdash
\vdash
\coloneqq
:=\coloneqq
\geqq
\geqq
\lt
<\lt
\sqsupseteq
\sqsupseteq
\vDash
\vDash
\Coloneqq
::=\Coloneqq
\geqslant
\geqslant
\mid
\mid
\Subset
\Subset
\Vdash
\Vdash
\colonsim
:\colonsim
\gg
\gg
\models
\models
\subset
\subset
\Vvdash
\Vvdash
\Colonsim
::\Colonsim
\ggg
\ggg
\multimap
\multimap
\subseteq
\subseteq
\cong
\cong
\gggtr
\gggtr
\owns
\owns
\subseteqq
\subseteqq
\curlyeqprec
\curlyeqprec
\gt
>\gt
\parallel
\parallel
\succ
\succ

Negated relations

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\not =
̸=\not =
\gnapprox
\gnapprox
\ngeqslant
\ngeqslant
\nsubseteq
\nsubseteq
\precneqq
\precneqq
\gneq
\gneq
\ngtr
\ngtr
\nsubseteqq
\nsubseteqq
\precnsim
\precnsim
\gneqq
\gneqq
\nleq
\nleq
\nsucc
\nsucc
\subsetneq
\subsetneq
\gnsim
\gnsim
\nleqq
\nleqq
\nsucceq
\nsucceq
\subsetneqq
\subsetneqq
\gvertneqq
\gvertneqq
\nleqslant
\nleqslant
\nsupseteq
\nsupseteq
\succnapprox
\succnapprox
\lnapprox
\lnapprox
\nless
\nless
\nsupseteqq
\nsupseteqq
\succneqq
\succneqq
\lneq
\lneq
\nmid
\nmid
\ntriangleleft
\ntriangleleft
\succnsim
\succnsim
\lneqq
\lneqq
\notin
\notin
\ntrianglelefteq
\ntrianglelefteq
\supsetneq
\supsetneq
\lnsim
\lnsim
\notni
̸\notni
\notni
̸\notni
\ntriangleright
\ntriangleright
\lvertneqq
\lvertneqq
\nparallel
\nparallel
\ntrianglerighteq
\ntrianglerighteq
\varsubsetneq
\varsubsetneq
\ncong
\ncong
\nprec
\nprec
\nvdash
\nvdash
\varsubsetneqq
\varsubsetneqq
\ne
\ne
\npreceq
\npreceq
\nvDash
\nvDash
\varsupsetneq
\varsupsetneq
\neq
\neq
\nshortmid
\nshortmid
\nVDash
\nVDash
\varsupsetneqq
\varsupsetneqq
\ngeq
\ngeq
\nshortparallel
\nshortparallel
\nVdash
\nVdash
\supsetneqq
\supsetneqq
\ngeqq
\ngeqq
\nsim
\nsim
\precnapprox
\precnapprox

Arrows

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\circlearrowleft
\circlearrowleft
\Leftarrow
\Leftarrow
\looparrowright
\looparrowright
\rightrightarrows
\rightrightarrows
\circlearrowright
\circlearrowright
\leftarrowtail
\leftarrowtail
\Lsh
\Lsh
\rightsquigarrow
\rightsquigarrow
\curvearrowleft
\curvearrowleft
\leftharpoondown
\leftharpoondown
\mapsto
\mapsto
\Rrightarrow
\Rrightarrow
\curvearrowright
\curvearrowright
\leftharpoonup
\leftharpoonup
\nearrow
\nearrow
\Rsh
\Rsh
\dashleftarrow
\dashleftarrow
\leftleftarrows
\leftleftarrows
\nleftarrow
\nleftarrow
\searrow
\searrow
\dashrightarrow
\dashrightarrow
\leftrightarrow
\leftrightarrow
\nLeftarrow
\nLeftarrow
\swarrow
\swarrow
\downarrow
\downarrow
\Leftrightarrow
\Leftrightarrow
\nleftrightarrow
\nleftrightarrow
\to
\to
\Downarrow
\Downarrow
\leftrightarrows
\leftrightarrows
\nLeftrightarrow
\nLeftrightarrow
\twoheadleftarrow
\twoheadleftarrow
\downdownarrows
\downdownarrows
\leftrightharpoons
\leftrightharpoons
\nrightarrow
\nrightarrow
\twoheadrightarrow
\twoheadrightarrow
\downharpoonleft
\downharpoonleft
\leftrightsquigarrow
\leftrightsquigarrow
\nRightarrow
\nRightarrow
\uparrow
\uparrow
\downharpoonright
\downharpoonright
\Lleftarrow
\Lleftarrow
\nwarrow
\nwarrow
\Uparrow
\Uparrow
\gets
\gets
\longleftarrow
\longleftarrow
\restriction
\restriction
\updownarrow
\updownarrow
\hookleftarrow
\hookleftarrow
\Longleftarrow
\Longleftarrow
\rightarrow
\rightarrow
\Updownarrow
\Updownarrow
\hookrightarrow
\hookrightarrow
\longleftrightarrow
\longleftrightarrow
\Rightarrow
\Rightarrow
\upharpoonleft
\upharpoonleft
\iff
\iff
\Longleftrightarrow
\Longleftrightarrow
\rightarrowtail
\rightarrowtail
\upharpoonright
\upharpoonright
\impliedby
\impliedby
\longmapsto
\longmapsto
\rightharpoondown
\rightharpoondown
\upuparrows
\upuparrows
\implies
\implies
\longrightarrow
\longrightarrow
\rightharpoonup
\rightharpoonup
\leadsto
\leadsto
\Longrightarrow
\Longrightarrow
\rightleftarrows
\rightleftarrows
\leftarrow
\leftarrow
\looparrowleft
\looparrowleft
\rightleftharpoons
\rightleftharpoons

Extensible arrows

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\xrightarrow{over}
over\xrightarrow{over}
\xRightarrow{abc}
abc\xRightarrow{abc}
\xrightharpoonup{abc}
abc\xrightharpoonup{abc}
\xrightarrow[under]{over}
underover\xrightarrow[under]{over}
\xmapsto{abc}
abc\xmapsto{abc}
\xrightharpoondown{abc}
abc\xrightharpoondown{abc}
\xleftarrow{abc}
abc\xleftarrow{abc}
\xLeftarrow{abc}
abc\xLeftarrow{abc}
\xleftharpoonup{abc}
abc\xleftharpoonup{abc}
\xleftrightarrow{abc}
abc\xleftrightarrow{abc}
\xLeftrightarrow{abc}
abc\xLeftrightarrow{abc}
\xleftharpoondown{abc}
abc\xleftharpoondown{abc}
\xhookleftarrow{abc}
abc\xhookleftarrow{abc}
\xhookrightarrow{abc}
abc\xhookrightarrow{abc}
\xrightleftharpoons{abc}
abc\xrightleftharpoons{abc}
\xtwoheadrightarrow{abc}
abc\xtwoheadrightarrow{abc}
\xlongequal{abc}
=abc\xlongequal{abc}
\xleftrightharpoons{abc}
abc\xleftrightharpoons{abc}
\xtwoheadleftarrow{abc}
abc\xtwoheadleftarrow{abc}
\xtofrom{abc}
abc\xtofrom{abc}

Symbols and punctuation

TXE\TeX codeResult preview
\Box
\Box
\dots
\dots
\checkmark
\checkmark
\square
\square
\cdots
\cdots
\dag
\dag
\#
#\#
\blacksquare
\blacksquare
\ddots
\ddots
\dagger
\dagger
\&
&\&
\triangle
\triangle
\ldots
\ldots
\_
_\_
\triangledown
\triangledown
\vdots
\vdots
\ddag
\ddag
\triangleleft
\triangleleft
\mathellipsis
\mathellipsis
\ddagger
\ddagger
\triangleright
\triangleright
\bigtriangledown
\bigtriangledown
\flat
\flat
\$
$\$
\bigtriangleup
\bigtriangleup
\natural
\natural
\blacktriangle
\blacktriangle
\sharp
\sharp
\pounds
£\pounds
'
'
`
`
\blacktriangledown
\blacktriangledown
\circledR
®\circledR
\blacktriangleleft
\blacktriangleleft
\circledS
\circledS
\yen
¥\yen
\text{\lq}
\text{\lq}
\blacktriangleright
\blacktriangleright
\clubsuit
\clubsuit
\surd
\surd
\diamond
\diamond
\diamondsuit
\diamondsuit
\degree
°\degree
\text{\rq}
\text{\rq}
\Diamond
\Diamond
\heartsuit
\heartsuit
\diagdown
\diagdown
\lozenge
\lozenge
\spadesuit
\spadesuit
\diagup
\diagup
\blacklozenge
\blacklozenge
\angle
\angle
\mho
\mho
\star
\star
\measuredangle
\measuredangle
\maltese
\maltese
\colon
:\colon
\bigstar
\bigstar
\sphericalangle
\sphericalangle
\text{\P}
\text{\P}
\backprime
\backprime
\top
\top
\text{\S}
§\text{\S}
\prime
\prime
\bot
\bot
\nabla
\nabla
\infty
\infty

Some facts

  • TXE\TeX is a computer typesetting system.
  • Unlike most popular systems (such as MS Word or Open Writer), TXE\TeX doesn't implement the WYSYWIG idea ("what you see is what you get"). This means that in order to see how the final document looks like, we first need to perform compilation process.
  • When we want to create a TXE\TeX document we need to write a source code in special language. This fact is often regarded as a significant disadvantage in relation to systems based on the WYSYWIG idea. On the other hand, TXE\TeX followers say, that it gives more reproducible results, because the compilation process of once written source code is more predictable than visual systems.
  • TXE\TeX is often used to create sciencific texts, which contain complex math formulas in the field of physics, mathematics or technical sciences.
  • The creator of the TXE\TeX is Donald E. Knuth, an American mathematician and computer scientist. Legend says, that the main motivation was the fact that Knuth was not satisfied with the contemporary appearance of his publication.

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