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Dipole moment of substances table
Table shows values of electric dipole moment of various chemical substances given in any unit you prefer such as debyes, coulomb times meter, atomic units of dipole moment etc.

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liquids

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
water 25°CH2O1.84
bromine fluorideBF30
carbon sulphideCS20
dichlorine heptoxideCl2O70.72
methanolCH3OH1.61
ethanolC2H5OH1.66
prophanolC3H7OH1.69
phenolC6H5OH1.61
formic acidHCOOH1.82
acetate acidCH3COOH1.68
benzaldehydeC6H5COH1.61
phenylamineC6H5NH21.51
benzeneC6H60
tolueneC6H5CH30.39
jodomethanCH3I1.64
chloroformCHCl31.15
bromoformCHBr31.3
chlorobenzeneC6H5Cl1.56
bromobenzeneC6H5Br1.53
iodobenzeneC6H5I1.25
tetrachloromethaneCCl40
pyridineC5H5N2.26
acetone(CH3)2CO2.76
diethyl ethere(C2H5)2O1.14
nitromethaneCH3NO23.02
nitrobenzeneC6H5NO24.3
hydrogen disulfideH2S21.17
hydrogen peroxideH2O22.13
hydrazynaN2H41.84
phosphorus trichloridePCl31.16
phosphoryl chloridePOCl32.4
disulfur dichlorideS2Cl21.6
thionyl chlorideSOCl21.38
sulfuryl chlorideSO2Cl21.8

other inorganic

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
ammoniaNH31.44
bromine fluorideBF30
diboraneB2H60
cyanogenC2N20
cyanogen bromideCNBr2.94
carbonyl sulfideCOS0.72
carbon sulphideCS20
chlorine trifluorideClF30.55
iodine chlorideICl0.5
hydrogen disulfideH2S21.17
nitrogen trifluorideNF30.24
hydrazynaN2H41.84
nitrosyl bromideNOBr1.87
nitrosyl chlorideNOCl1.83
sodium chloride (gas)NaCl8.5
oxygen difluorideOF20.18
phosphorus trichloridePCl31.16
phosphorus pentafluoridePF50
phosphinePH30.55
phosphoryl chloridePOCl32.4
disulfur dichlorideS2Cl21.6
sulfur hexafluorideSF60
thionyl chlorideSOCl21.38
sulfuryl chlorideSO2Cl21.8

gases

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
ammoniaNH31.44
methaneCH40
carbon dioxideCO20
diboraneB2H60
cyanogenC2N20
carbonyl sulfideCOS0.72
chlorine dioxideClO21.69
dichlorine monoxideCl2O0.78
hydrogen chlorideHCl1.03
hydrogen cyanideHCN2.88
hydrogen fluorideHF1.91
hydrogen jodideHI0.38
hydrogen sulfurideH2S0.93
methylamineCH3NH21.62
dimethylamine(CH3)2NH1.17
trimethylamine(CH3)3N0.62
ethylamineC2H5NH21.39
ethaneC2H60
prophaneC3H80
buthaneC4H100
etheneC2H40
ethyneC2H20
fluoromethaneCH3F1.81
chloromethaneCH3Cl1.56
chloroethaneC2H5Cl2
phosgeneCOCl21.18
formaldehydeHCHO2.27
nitrogen (II) oxideNO0.1
nitrogen (I) oxideN2O0.14
nitrogen (IV) oxideNO20.29
dinitrogen tetraoxideN2O40.37
nitrogen (V) oxideN2O51.39
oxygen difluorideOF20.18
phosphorus pentafluoridePF50
phosphinePH30.55
sulfur hexafluorideSF60
sulfur (IV) oxideSO21.6
sulfur (VI) oxideSO30

hydrocarbons

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
methaneCH40
ethaneC2H60
prophaneC3H80
buthaneC4H100
etheneC2H40
ethyneC2H20
benzeneC6H60
tolueneC6H5CH30.39

oxides

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
carbon dioxideCO20
carbon monoxideCO0.1
chlorine dioxideClO21.69
dichlorine monoxideCl2O0.78
dichlorine heptoxideCl2O70.72
hydrogen peroxideH2O22.13
nitrogen (II) oxideNO0.1
nitrogen (I) oxideN2O0.14
nitrogen (IV) oxideNO20.29
dinitrogen tetraoxideN2O40.37
nitrogen (V) oxideN2O51.39
sulfur (IV) oxideSO21.6
sulfur (VI) oxideSO30

salts

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
aluminum bromideAlBr35.1
aluminum iodideAlI32.5
arsenic bromideAsBr31.66
arsenic chlorideAsCl32.15
arsenic fluorideAsF32.65
arsenic hydrideAsH30.16
beryllium bromideBeBr20
beryllium chlorideBeCl20
cyanogen iodideCNI3.7
iron(III) chlorideFeCl31.27
mercury (II) chloride (650K)HgCl20
potassium bromide (931K)KBr9.07
potassium bromideKBr9.07
potassium jodide (898K)KI9.24

inorganic acids

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
hydrogen bromideHBr0.79
hydrogen chlorideHCl1.03
hydrogen cyanideHCN2.88
hydrogen fluorideHF1.91
hydrogen jodideHI0.38
hydrogen sulfurideH2S0.93

alcohols

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
methanolCH3OH1.61
ethanolC2H5OH1.66
prophanolC3H7OH1.69

phenols

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
phenolC6H5OH1.61

carboxylic acids

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
formic acidHCOOH1.82
acetate acidCH3COOH1.68

other organic

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
benzaldehydeC6H5COH1.61
fluoromethaneCH3F1.81
chloromethaneCH3Cl1.56
bromomethane (373K)CH3Br1.78
jodomethanCH3I1.64
chloroformCHCl31.15
bromoformCHBr31.3
iodoformCHI30.95
chlorobenzeneC6H5Cl1.56
bromobenzeneC6H5Br1.53
iodobenzeneC6H5I1.25
tetrachloromethaneCCl40
chloroethaneC2H5Cl2
phosgeneCOCl21.18
pyridineC5H5N2.26
acetone(CH3)2CO2.76
diethyl ethere(C2H5)2O1.14
formaldehydeHCHO2.27
nitromethaneCH3NO23.02
nitrobenzeneC6H5NO24.3

amines

SubstanceMolecular formulaDipole moment
methylamineCH3NH21.62
dimethylamine(CH3)2NH1.17
trimethylamine(CH3)3N0.62
ethylamineC2H5NH21.39
phenylamineC6H5NH21.51

Some facts

  • The electric dipole moment for a system consisting of two or more point charges is defined as the below sum:
    p=i=1...nqiri\overrightarrow{p} = \sum_{i=1...n}{q_i \overrightarrow{r_i}}
    where:
    • p\overrightarrow{p} - electric dipole moment of the whole system,
    • ri\overrightarrow{r_i} - a vector pointing to the i-th electric charge,
    • qiq_i - value of i-th charge,
    • nn - number of charges in the system.
  • Dipole moment is a vector.
  • The dipole moment makes sense for neutral systems, i.e. where the sum of all charges is zero:
    i=1...nqi=0\sum_{i=1...n}{q_i} = 0
  • The unit of electric dipole moment in SI system is coulomb times meter:
    CmC \cdot m
  • Another unit, used mainly by chemists and atomic physics, is 1 debye:
    1D=3,335641030Cm1 D = 3,33564 \cdot 10^{-30} C \cdot m
  • If the system with the dipole moment p\overrightarrow{p} is introduced into the external electric field E\overrightarrow{E}, then the moment of force will act on it is:
    M=p×E\overrightarrow{M} = \overrightarrow{p} \times \overrightarrow{E}
  • Molecules with non-zero dipole moment are called polar. An example of such a molecule is water (H2O H_2O).
  • If the electric charges in the system are evenly distributed, then the dipole moment of such a system is zero. Examples of such systems are chemical molecules with a symmetrical structure such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 CCl_4). Such molecules are called apolar or non-polar.

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