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Table of standard half-cell potentials
Table shows standard potentials of common half-cells at 25 °C.

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Standard half-cell potentials at 25 °C

Half reduction reactionStandard potential E0 [V]
Li++eLiLi^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons Li-3.05
Rb++eRbRb ^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons Rb-2.93
K++eKK^+ +e^- \rightleftharpoons K-2.93
Ra2++2eRaRa^{2+} + 2e^- \rightleftharpoons Ra-2.92
Cs++eCsCs^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons Cs-2.92
Ba2++2eBaBa^{2+}+ 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Ba-2.91
Sr2++2eSrSr^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Sr-2.89
Ca2++2eCaCa^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Ca-2.87
Na++eNaNa^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons Na-2.71
La3++3eLaLa^{3+} + 3e^- \rightleftharpoons La-2.52
Ce3++3eCeCe^{3+} + 3e^- \rightleftharpoons Ce-2.48
Mg2++2eMgMg^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Mg-2.36
Be2++2eBeBe^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Be-1.85
U3++3eUU^{3+} + 3 e^- \rightleftharpoons U-1.79
Al3++3eAlAl^{3+} + 3 e^- \rightleftharpoons Al-1.66
Ti2++2eTiTi^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Ti-1.63
V2++2eVV^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons V-1.19
Mn2++2eMnMn^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Mn-1.18
Cr2++2eCrCr^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Cr-0.91
Te+2eTe2Te + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Te^{2-}-0.84
2H2O+2eH2+2OH2 H_2O + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons H_2 + 2OH^--0.83
Cd(OH)2+2eCd+2OHCd(OH)_2 + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Cd+ 2OH^--0.81
Zn2++2eZnZn^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Zn-0.76
Cr3++3eCrCr^{3+} + 3 e^- \rightleftharpoons Cr-0.74
Se+2eSe2Se + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Se^{2-}-0.67
U4++eU3+U^{4+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons U^{3+}-0.61
O2+eO2O_2 + e^- \rightleftharpoons O^{2-}-0.56
Ga++eGaGa^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ga-0.53
In3++3eIn2+In^{3+} + 3 e^- \rightleftharpoons In^{2+}-0.49
S+2eS2S + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons S^{2-}-0.48
Fe2++2eFeFe^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Fe-0.44
In3++2eIn+In^{3+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons In^+-0.44
Cr3++eCr2+Cr^{3+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Cr^{2+}-0.41
In2++eIn+In^{2+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons In^+-0.4
Cd2++2eCdCd^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Cd-0.4
Ti3++eTi2+Ti^{3+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ti^{2+}-0.37
PbSO4+2ePb+SO42PbSO_4 + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Pb + SO_4^{2-}-0.36
In3++3eInIn^{3+} + 3 e^- \rightleftharpoons In-0.34
Tl++eTlTl^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons Tl-0.34
Co2++2eCoCo^{2+} +2e^- \rightleftharpoons Co-0.28
V3++eV2+V^{3+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons V^{2+}-0.26
Ni2++2eNiNi^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Ni-0.23
AgI+eAg+IAgI + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ag + I^--0.15
In++eInIn^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons In-0.14
Sn2++2eSnSn^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Sn-0.14
Pb2++2ePbPb^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Pb-0.13
O2+H2O+2eHO2+OHO_2 + H_2O + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons HO^-_2 + OH^--0.08
Fe3++3eFeFe^{3+} + 3 e^- \rightleftharpoons Fe-0.04
2H++2eH22 H^+ + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons H_20
Ti4++eTi3+Ti^{4+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ti^{3+}0
NO3+H2O+2eNO2+2OHNO_3^- + H_2O + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons NO_2^- + 2OH^-0.01
AgBr+eAg+BrAgBr + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ag + Br^-0.07
Cu2++eCu+Cu^{2+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Cu^+0.15
Sn4++2eSn2+Sn^{4+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Sn^{2+}0.15
SO42+4H+2eH2SO3+H2OSO_4^{2-} + 4 H^- + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons H_2SO_3 + H_2 O0.17
Bi3++3eBiBi^{3+} + 3 e^- \rightleftharpoons Bi0.2
AgCl+eAg+ClAgCl + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ag + Cl^-0.22
Hg2Cl2+2e2Kg+2ClHg_2Cl_2 + 2e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 Kg + 2Cl^-0.27
Cu2++2eCuCu^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Cu0.34
Hg2Cl2+2e2Hg+2ClHg_2Cl_2 + 2e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 Hg + 2Cl^-0.27
ClO4+H2O+2eClO3+2OHClO_4^- + H_2O + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons ClO_3^- + 2OH^-0.36
O2+2H2O+2e4OHO_2 + 2H_2O + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons 4 OH^-0.4
Ni(OH)3+eNi(OH)2+OHNi(OH)_3 + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ni(OH)_2 + OH^-0.49
Cu++eCuCu^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons Cu0.52
I3+2e3II_3^- + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons 3 I^-0.53
I2+2e2II_2 + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 I^-0.54
MnO4+eMnO42MnO_4^- + e^- \rightleftharpoons MnO_4^{2-}0.56
MnO4+2H2O+2eMnO2+4OHMnO_4^- + 2H_2O + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons MnO_2 + 4OH^-0.6
BrO+H2O+2eBr+2OHBrO^- + H_2O + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Br^- + 2OH^-0.76
Fe3++eFe2+Fe^{3+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Fe^{2+}0.77
AgF+eAg+FAgF + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ag + F^-0.78
Hg22++2e2HgHg_2^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 Hg0.79
NO3+2H++eNO2+H2ONO_3^- +2 H^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons NO_2 +H_2O0.8
Ag++eAgAg^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ag0.8
Hg2++2eHgHg^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Hg0.85
ClO+H2O+2eCl+2OHClO^- + H_2O + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Cl^- +2 OH^-0.89
2Hg2++2eHg22+2 Hg^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Hg_2^{2+}0.92
NO3+4H++3eNO+2H2ONO_3^- +4 H^+ + 3 e^- \rightleftharpoons NO + 2H_2O0.96
Pu4++ePu3+Pu^{4+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Pu^{3+}0.97
Br2+2e2BrBr_2 + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 Br^-1.09
Pt2++2ePtPt^{2+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Pt1.2
O2+4H++4e2H2OO_2 + 4H^+ + 4 e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 H_2O1.23
MnO2+4H++2eMn2++2H2OMnO_2 + 4 H^+ + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Mn^{2+} + 2 H_2O1.23
ClO4+2H++2eClO3+H2OClO_4^- +2 H^+ + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons ClO_3^- +H_2O1.23
O3+H2O+2eO2+2OHO_3 +H_2O + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons O_2 + 2 OH^-1.24
CrO72+14H++6e2Cr3+7H2OCrO_7^{2-} + 14 H^+ + 6 e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 Cr^{3-} +7 H_2O1.33
Cl2+2e2ClCl_2 + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 Cl^-1.36
Au3++3eAuAu^{3+} + 3 e^- \rightleftharpoons Au1.4
MnO4+8H++5eMn2++4H2OMnO_4^- +8 H^+ + 5 e^- \rightleftharpoons Mn^{2+} + 4H_2O1.51
Mn3++eMn2+Mn^{3+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Mn^{2+}1.51
2HBrO+2H++2eBr2+2H2O2 HBrO +2 H^+ + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Br_2 + 2 H_2O1.6
Ce4++eCe3+Ce^{4+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ce^{3+}1.61
2HClO+2H++2eCl2+2H2O2 HClO +2 H^+ + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Cl_2 + 2 H_2O1.63
Pb4++2ePb2+Pb^{4+} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons Pb^{2+}1.67
Au++eAuAu^+ + e^- \rightleftharpoons Au1.69
H2O2+2H++2e2H2OH_2O_2 +2 H^+ + 2e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 H_2O1.78
Co3++eCo2+Co^{3+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Co^{2+}1.81
Ag2++eAg+Ag^{2+} + e^- \rightleftharpoons Ag^+1.98
S2O82+2e2SO42S_2O_8^{2-} + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 SO_4^{2-}2.05
O3+2H++2eO2+2H2OO_3 +2 H^+ + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons O_2 + 2 H_2O2.07
F2+2e2FF_2 + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons 2 F^-2.87
H4XeO6+2H++2eXeO3+3H2OH_4XeO_6 +2 H^+ + 2 e^- \rightleftharpoons XeO_3 + 3H_2O3

Some facts

  • Standard potential of half-cell is electromotive force (SEM) of a cell composed of a reversible half-cell containing ions with unit activity and hydrogen electrode.
  • In other words, the standard potential is the potential of cathode or anode relative to the reference hydrogen electrode.
  • We conventionally assume that the hydrogen electrode has a standard potential equal to zero at each temperature.
  • The standard potential depends on the temperature. The data presented in this calculator concerns the temperature of 25 °C.
  • Knowing the potentials of half-cells (cathode and anode), we can calculate the potential of a cell composed of them:
    E=EcathodeEanodeE^\circ = E^{\circ}_{cathode} - E^{\circ}_{anode}

    where:
    • EE^\circ - standard cell potential,
    • EcathodeE^\circ_{cathode} - standard cathode potential,
    • EanodeE^\circ_{anode} - standard anode potential.

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