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Table of standard free enthalpy of creation for various chemical substances
Tables show values of standard (1013.25 hPa, 298K) free enthalpy of creation (from free elements) of various chemical compounds.

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liquids

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
acetone(CH3)2CO-152.6
glycerinC3H5(OH)3-477.4
ethanolC2H5OH-184.3
methanolCH3OH-166.7
ethylene glycolC2H4(OH)2-323.3
phenolC6H5OH183.9
formic acidHCOOH-347
lactic acidCH3CH(OH)COOH-518.1
acetate acidCH3COOH-389
propionic acidCH3CH2COOH-384.6
benzaldehydeC6H5COH6.4
methylamineCH3NH229.6
phenylamine (aniline)C6H5NH2146.3
benzeneC6H6123.8
orthoxyleneC6H4(CH3)2110
metaxyleneC6H4(CH3)2109.6
paraxyleneC6H4(CH3)2108.5
chlorobenzeneC6H5Cl94
bromobenzeneC6H5Br112.3
pyridineC5H5N158.4
diethyl ethere(C2H5)2O-116.3
nitromethaneCH3NO26.5
nitrobenzeneC6H5NO2140
ethyl acetateCH3COOC2H5-328.1
n-octaneC8H186.6
butter acidCH3CH2CH2COOH-377.3
acetonitrileC2H3N88.8
acetylacetoneC5H8O2-306.9
benzyl alcoholC7H8O-27.8
benzonitrileC7H5N258.1
acetic anhydrideC4H6O3-488.6
bromoethaneC2H5Br-26.1
methyl methacrylateC5H8O2-225
N-methylanilineC7H9N178.1
methyl formateC2H4O2-300.2

alcohols

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
ethanolC2H5OH-184.3
methanolCH3OH-166.7
ethylene glycolC2H4(OH)2-323.3
benzyl alcoholC7H8O-27.8

gases

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
methaneCH4-50.6
n-buthaneC4H10-16.7
ethene (ethylene)C2H468.3
ethyneC2H2210.7
formaldehyde (methanal)HCHO-102.6
vinyl chloride (chloroethene)CH2CHCl51.5
bromochlorofluoroiodomethaneCBrCIFI125.2
bromomethaneCH3Br-25
1,3-butadienC4H6152.5
chloroethaneC2H5Cl-60.3
methanethiolCH4S-9.3

hydrocarbons

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
methaneCH4-50.6
n-buthaneC4H10-16.7
ethene (ethylene)C2H468.3
ethyneC2H2210.7
benzeneC6H6123.8
orthoxyleneC6H4(CH3)2110
metaxyleneC6H4(CH3)2109.6
paraxyleneC6H4(CH3)2108.5
n-octaneC8H186.6
naphthaleneC10H8200.9
antraceneC14H10285.9
1,3-butadienC4H6152.5

phenols

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
phenolC6H5OH183.9

carboxylic acids

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
formic acidHCOOH-347
lactic acidCH3CH(OH)COOH-518.1
oxalic acid(COOH)2-701.7
acetate acidCH3COOH-389
propionic acidCH3CH2COOH-384.6
salicylic acidOHC6H4COOH427
benzoic acidC6H5COOH-245.3
butter acidCH3CH2CH2COOH-377.3
palmitic acidC15H31COOH-316
stearic acidC17H35COOH-36
succinic acidHOOC(CH2)2COOH-744.5
fumaric acidHOOCCHCHCOOH-654.2
maleic acidHOOCCHCHCOOH-629.8
phthalic acidC6H4(COOH)2-591

solids

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
oxalic acid(COOH)2-701.7
salicylic acidOHC6H4COOH427
benzoic acidC6H5COOH-245.3
naphthaleneC10H8200.9
antraceneC14H10285.9
palmitic acidC15H31COOH-316
stearic acidC17H35COOH-36
succinic acidHOOC(CH2)2COOH-744.5
fumaric acidHOOCCHCHCOOH-654.2
maleic acidHOOCCHCHCOOH-629.8
phthalic acidC6H4(COOH)2-591
urea (carbonyl diamide)CO(NH2)2-203.5
acetamideCH3CONH2191.4
ß-D-glucoseC6H12O6-909.3
saccharoseC12H22O11-1548.1
phthalic anhydrideC8H4O3-331
biphenylC12H10253.2
glycineC2H5NO2-373.7
citric acidC6H8O7-1422.4
sodium acetateC2H3O2Na-608.8

other organic

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
benzaldehydeC6H5COH6.4
chlorobenzeneC6H5Cl94
bromobenzeneC6H5Br112.3
pyridineC5H5N158.4
diethyl ethere(C2H5)2O-116.3
formaldehyde (methanal)HCHO-102.6
nitromethaneCH3NO26.5
nitrobenzeneC6H5NO2140
vinyl chloride (chloroethene)CH2CHCl51.5
acetamideCH3CONH2191.4
ß-D-glucoseC6H12O6-909.3
saccharoseC12H22O11-1548.1
acetonitrileC2H3N88.8
acetylacetoneC5H8O2-306.9
benzonitrileC7H5N258.1
phthalic anhydrideC8H4O3-331
acetic anhydrideC4H6O3-488.6
biphenylC12H10253.2
bromochlorofluoroiodomethaneCBrCIFI125.2
bromoethaneC2H5Br-26.1
bromomethaneCH3Br-25
chloroethaneC2H5Cl-60.3
glycineC2H5NO2-373.7
citric acidC6H8O7-1422.4
methyl methacrylateC5H8O2-225
methanethiolCH4S-9.3
N-methylanilineC7H9N178.1

amines

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
methylamineCH3NH229.6
phenylamine (aniline)C6H5NH2146.3

esters

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
ethyl acetateCH3COOC2H5-328.1
methyl formateC2H4O2-300.2

other inorganic

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
urea (carbonyl diamide)CO(NH2)2-203.5

salts

SubstanceMolecular formulaStandard free enthalpy of creation ΔG0
[kJ/mol]
sodium acetateC2H3O2Na-608.8

Some facts

  • Free enthalpy is defined as:
    G=U+pVTSG = U + pV - TS
    where:
    • G - free enthalpy,
    • U - internal energy,
    • p - pressure,
    • V - volume,
    • T - temperature,
    • S - entropy.
  • The relationship between enthalpy and free enthalpy is as follows:
    G=HTSG = H - TS
    where:
    • G - free enthalpy,
    • H - enthalpy,
    • T - temperature,
    • S - entropy.
  • Free enthalpy is also called the Gibbs function or Gibbs free energy.
  • Free enthalpy is usually marked with the symbol G or g.
  • The standard free enthalpy applies to the so-called standard conditions i.e. pressure 1013,25 hPa and temperature 25 °C.
  • Basing on enthalpy and entropy or reaction we can calculate its free enthalpy:
    ΔG=ΔHTΔS\Delta G = \Delta H - T \Delta S
    where:
  • If the free enthalpy of reaction is negative, then it runs spontaneously.

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