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Table of substances permittivity
Tables show relative permittivity (to vacuum) of various substances (solvents).

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metals

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
siliconSi11.68

liquids

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
acetone(CH3)2CO21.01
glycerinC3H5(OH)346.53
ethanolC2H5OH25.3
water 20°CH2O80.4
cyclohexaneC6H122.02
carbon sulphideCS22.63
methanolCH3OH33
acetate acidCH3COOH6.2
benzeneC6H62.31
tolueneC6H5CH32.38
chloroformCHCl34.81
tetrachloromethaneCCl42.24
diethyl ethere(C2H5)2O4.27
nitromethaneCH3NO237.27

alcohols

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
ethanolC2H5OH25.3
methanolCH3OH33

other inorganic

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
ammoniaNH317
carbon sulphideCS22.63

gases

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
ammoniaNH317
dry air (standard conditions, 25°C and 100 kPa)-1.00054
hydrogen cyanideHCN2.3

hydrocarbons

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
cyclohexaneC6H122.02
benzeneC6H62.31
tolueneC6H5CH32.38

plastics

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
polyethylene-2.25
rubber, hard-7

other materials

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
paper-3.5

inorganic acids

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
hydrogen cyanideHCN2.3
sulfurous (VI) acidH2SO484

carboxylic acids

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
acetate acidCH3COOH6.2

other organic

SubstanceMolecular formulaRelative permittivity εr
chloroformCHCl34.81
tetrachloromethaneCCl42.24
diethyl ethere(C2H5)2O4.27
nitromethaneCH3NO237.27

Some facts

  • Simply speaking permittivity tells us how easily electric phenomena propagates withing given medium.
  • Permittivity is usually denoted by the Greek letter epsilon: ε\varepsilon.
  • Electrical permittivity can be defined as the ratio of the electric field induction to the field strength:
    ε=DE\varepsilon = \frac{D}{E}
  • The medium with the lowest permittivity is vacuum:
    ε0=8,854187817...1012Fm\varepsilon_0 = 8,854187817... \cdot 10^{-12} \frac{F}{m}
  • Basic permittivity unit in SI system is farad per meter:
    Fm\frac{F}{m}
  • Two electrical charges Q1Q_1, Q2Q_2 isolated by medium with permittivity ε\varepsilon, act on themselves with force:
    F=Q1Q24πεr2F = \frac{Q_1 Q_2}{4\pi\varepsilon r^2}
    where:
    • FF - force with which Q1Q_1 and Q2Q_2 charges interact,
    • Q1Q_1 - value of first charge,
    • Q2Q_2 - value of second charge,
    • ε\varepsilon - permittivity of medium between charges,
    • rr - distance beetween charges.
  • Relative permittivity is sometimes called dielectric constant.
  • Relative permittivity tells us how many times the permittivity of a given medium is greater than the permittivity of vacuum:
    εr=εε0\varepsilon_r = \frac{\varepsilon}{\varepsilon_0}
    where:
    • εr\varepsilon_r - relative permittivity of medium,
    • ε\varepsilon - absolute permittivity of medium,
    • ε0\varepsilon_0 - permittivity of vacuum.
  • Medium permittivity depends on temperature and pressure. Values given in this calculator have been measured at the pressure of 1013,25 hPa and temperature of 20 °C.

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