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Density of substances table
Table shows density of selected gases, solids and liquids.

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metals

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
aluminum 2024-T3-2770
aluminum 6061-T6-2700
aluminum 7075-T6-2803
aluminum (pure)-2643
brass-8553
bronze, manganese-8300
bronze, phosphor-8800
cadmium-8650
chromium-6856
cobalt-8906
copper (cast rolled)-8906
copper (pure)-8940
gold-19320
iron-7870
iron, cast-7207
iron, gray cast-7079
iron, wrough-7658
lead-11341
magnesium-1746
magnesium, alloy-1770
manganese-7192
molybdenum-10300
monel-8690
nickel-8890
nickel, silver-8440
platinum-21450
silver-10490
steel, carbon-7850
steel, high speed tool-8750
steel, stainless 304-7700
steel, stainless 316L-8000
steel, stainless 347-7900
steel, stainless 2304-7800
steel, tool-7715
tin-7300
titanium-4540
titanium, alloy-4510
tungsten-18820
uranium-18700
zinc-7144

other materials

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
siliconSi2330
ice (frozen water, 0°C)H2O916.7
feathers (mean)-2.5
asphalt, crushed-721
brick-2150
carbon, solid-2140
cement-2800
ceramic-2130
human body (mean)-1050
cardboard-900
paper-1000
window glass-2500
organic glass (plexiglass)-1180

liquids

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
acetoneCO(CH3)2789.9
glycerinC3H5(OH)31260
ethanol (alcohol)C2H5OH792
liquid ammoniaNH3682.1
liquid argonAr1390
liquid heliumHe125
liquid hydrogenH270
liquid methaneCH4424
liquid nitrogenN2804
oil, petroleum-820
gasoline-660
mercuryHg13584
water 4°CH2O1000
water 20°CH2O998
water 25°CH2O997.07
water, sea-1024

alcohols

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
ethanol (alcohol)C2H5OH792

other inorganic

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
ammoniaNH30.73

gases

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
ammoniaNH30.73
argonAr1.784
heliumHe0.1785
hydrogenH20.082
methaneCH40.656
nitrogenN21.25
carbon dioxideCO21.95
dry air (normal conditions, 0°C and 1013,25 hPa)-1.293
dry air (standard conditions, 25°C and 100 kPa)-1.168

hydrocarbons

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
methaneCH40.656

oxides

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
carbon dioxideCO21.95

plastics

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
bakelite-1360
nylon-1700
polycarbonate-1300
polyethylene-2300
rubber, hard-1185
styrofoam EPS70-13.5
styrofoam EPS80-15
styrofoam EPS90-17
styrofoam EPS100-18
styrofoam EPS120-20
styrofoam EPS150-24
styrofoam EPS200-28

wood

SubstanceMolecular formulaDensity
[kg/m³]
balsa wood-110
cork wood-280
bamboo wood-350
fir wood-450
pine wood-550
spruce wood-470
larch wood-690
poplar wood-450
alder wood-530
birch-tree wood-650
maple wood-660
elm wood-680
oak wood-710
beech wood-730
ash wood-750
olive wood-852

Some facts

  • Density is the physical quantity that determines the ratio beetwen the mass and the volume that mass occupies.
  • We usually denote the density by d or the small Greek letter ρ (pronunciation: rho).
  • If the sample body has mass m and it occupies volume V, then the density of the substance from which it is composed can be calculated using the following formula:
    d=mVd = \frac{m}{V}
    gdzie:
    • d = density,
    • m = mass,
    • V = volume.
  • The density unit in SI system is kilogram per cubic meter:
    kgm3\frac{kg}{m^3}
  • Density is a feature of a particular substance. An example of a relatively high density substance is steel. Example of relatively small density is styrofoam, .
    ⓘ Example: If we grab a small steel ball in hand, we can easily feel it's weight. If we grab anologous (i.e. with the same size), but made of styrofoam ball in second hand, then we notice that it is much lighter than the previous one. This is because steel has a much higher density than styrofoam.
  • Substances with high density are good acoustic insulators. For example, making the walls of a room with a thick concrete layer (high density material) will cause what is going on inside to be very poorly audible on the outside.
  • Acoustic insulation does not go hand in hand with thermal insulation. For example: styrofoam (very low density material) is known as a very good thermal insulator, but is unusable as an acoustic insulator.
  • ⚠ WARNING! Substances can change their density depending on temperature and pressure. Therefore density tables also contain the conditions in which they were measured.
  • Wood density can vary greatly from species to species. The average density of ochroma pyramidale wood (commonly known as balsa wood) is only 110 kg/m3. For comparison, the olive wood is approximately 8 times greater (852 kg/m3). Very low density of the first one was noticed by engineers, which resulted in using it in many fields of industry. Balsa wood is used to build many useful things for example:
    • rafts and yachts,
    • surfboards,
    • gliders and airplanes,
    • orthopedic prostheses,
    • table tennis bats,
    • fishing rods,
    • structural elements in modeling,
    • pipe filters,
    • insulating fittings,
    • conductors (bats).

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