Density of substances table
Table shows density of selected gases, solids and liquids.

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Decimals

metals

SubstanceDensity [kg/m3]
aluminum 2024-T3
2770
aluminum 6061-T6
2700
aluminum 7075-T6
2803
aluminum (pure)
2643
brass
8553
bronze, manganese
8300
bronze, phosphor
8800
cadmium
8650
chromium
6856
cobalt
8906
copper (cast rolled)
8906
copper (pure)
8940
gold
19320
iron
7870
iron, cast
7207
iron, gray cast
7079
iron, wrough
7658
lead
11341
magnesium
1746
magnesium, alloy
1770
manganese
7192
molybdenum
10300
monel
8690
nickel
8890
nickel, silver
8440
platinum
21450
silicon
2330
silver
10490
steel, carbon
7850
steel, high speed tool
8750
steel, stainless 304
7700
steel, stainless 316L
8000
steel, stainless 347
7900
steel, stainless 2304
7800
steel, tool
7715
tin
7300
titanium
4540
titanium, alloy
4510
tungsten
18820
uranium
18700
zinc
7144

liquids

SubstanceDensity [kg/m3]
acetone
789.9
ethanol (alcohol)
792
liquid ammonia
682.1
liquid argon
1390
liquid helium
125
liquid hydrogen
70
liquid methane
424
liquid nitrogen
804
oil, petroleum
820
gasoline
660
mercury
13584
water 4°C
1000
water 20°C
998
water, sea
1024

gases

SubstanceDensity [kg/m3]
ammonia
0.73
argon
1.784
helium
0.1785
hydrogen
0.082
methane
0.656
nitrogen
1.25
carbon dioxide (CO2)
1.95
dry air (normal conditions, 0°C and 1013,25 hPa)
1.293
dry air (standard conditions, 0°C and 100 kPa)
1.168

plastics

SubstanceDensity [kg/m3]
bakelite
1360
nylon
1700
polycarbonate
1300
polyethylene
2300
rubber, hard
1185
styrofoam EPS70
13.5
styrofoam EPS80
15
styrofoam EPS90
17
styrofoam EPS100
18
styrofoam EPS120
20
styrofoam EPS150
24
styrofoam EPS200
28

wood

SubstanceDensity [kg/m3]
balsa wood
110
cork wood
280
bamboo wood
350
fir wood
450
pine wood
550
spruce wood
470
larch wood
690
poplar wood
450
alder wood
530
birch-tree wood
650
maple wood
660
elm wood
680
oak wood
710
beech wood
730
ash wood
750
olive wood
852

other materials

SubstanceDensity [kg/m3]
feathers (mean)
2.5
asphalt, crushed
721
brick
2150
carbon, solid
2140
cement
2800
ceramic
2130
human body (mean)
1050
cardboard
900
paper
1000
window glass
2500
organic glass (plexiglass)
1180

Some facts

  • Density is the physical quantity that determines the ratio beetwen the mass and the volume that mass occupies.

  • We usually denote the density by d or the small Greek letter ρ (pronunciation: rho).
  • If the sample body has mass m and it occupies volume V, then the density of the substance from which it is composed can be calculated using the following formula:
    density (d) = mass (m) / volume (V)

  • The density unit in SI is kg/m3 (kilogram per cubic meter).
  • Density is a characteristic feature of the substance. An example of a relatively high density substance is steel. Another example is styrofoam, which has relative small density.
    ⓘ Example: If we grab a small steel ball in hand, we can easily feel it's weight. If we grab anologous (i.e. with the same size), but made of styrofoam ball in second hand, then we notice that it is much heavier than the previous one. This is because steel has a much higher density than styrofoam.

  • Substances with high density are good acoustic insulators. For example, making the walls of a room with a thick concrete layer (high density material) will cause what is going on inside to be very poorly audible on the outside.
  • Acoustic insulation does not go hand in hand with thermal insulation. For example: styrofoam (very low density material) is known as a very good thermal insulator, but is unusable as an acoustic insulator.
  • ⚠ WARNING! Substances can change their density depending on temperature and pressure. Therefore density tables also contain the conditions in which they were measured.
  • Wood density can vary greatly from species to species. The average density of ochroma pyramidale wood (commonly known as balsa wood) is only 110 kg/m3. For comparison, the olive wood is approximately 8 times greater (852 kg/m3). Very low density of the first one was noticed by engineers, which resulted in using it in many fields of industry. Balsa wood is used to build many useful things for example:
    • rafts and yachts,
    • surfboards,
    • gliders and airplanes,
    • orthopedic prostheses,
    • table tennis bats,
    • fishing rods,
    • structural elements in modeling,
    • pipe filters,
    • insulating fittings,
    • conductors (bats).

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