Density of substances table
Table shows density of selected gases, solids and liquids.

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Decimals

metals

SubstanceDensity
[kg/m3]
aluminum 2024-T32770
aluminum 6061-T62700
aluminum 7075-T62803
aluminum (pure)2643
brass8553
bronze, manganese8300
bronze, phosphor8800
cadmium8650
chromium6856
cobalt8906
copper (cast rolled)8906
copper (pure)8940
gold19320
iron7870
iron, cast7207
iron, gray cast7079
iron, wrough7658
lead11341
magnesium1746
magnesium, alloy1770
manganese7192
molybdenum10300
monel8690
nickel8890
nickel, silver8440
platinum21450
silicon2330
silver10490
steel, carbon7850
steel, high speed tool8750
steel, stainless 3047700
steel, stainless 316L8000
steel, stainless 3477900
steel, stainless 23047800
steel, tool7715
tin7300
titanium4540
titanium, alloy4510
tungsten18820
uranium18700
zinc7144

liquids

SubstanceDensity
[kg/m3]
acetone789.9
glycerin1260
ethanol (alcohol)792
liquid ammonia682.1
liquid argon1390
liquid helium125
liquid hydrogen70
liquid methane424
liquid nitrogen804
oil, petroleum820
gasoline660
mercury13584
water 4°C1000
water 20°C998
water 25°C997.07
water, sea1024

other materials

SubstanceDensity
[kg/m3]
ice (frozen water, 0°C)916.7
feathers (mean)2.5
asphalt, crushed721
brick2150
carbon, solid2140
cement2800
ceramic2130
human body (mean)1050
cardboard900
paper1000
window glass2500
organic glass (plexiglass)1180

gases

SubstanceDensity
[kg/m3]
ammonia0.73
argon1.784
helium0.1785
hydrogen0.082
methane0.656
nitrogen1.25
carbon dioxide (CO2)1.95
dry air (normal conditions, 0°C and 1013,25 hPa)1.293
dry air (standard conditions, 25°C and 100 kPa)1.168

plastics

SubstanceDensity
[kg/m3]
bakelite1360
nylon1700
polycarbonate1300
polyethylene2300
rubber, hard1185
styrofoam EPS7013.5
styrofoam EPS8015
styrofoam EPS9017
styrofoam EPS10018
styrofoam EPS12020
styrofoam EPS15024
styrofoam EPS20028

wood

SubstanceDensity
[kg/m3]
balsa wood110
cork wood280
bamboo wood350
fir wood450
pine wood550
spruce wood470
larch wood690
poplar wood450
alder wood530
birch-tree wood650
maple wood660
elm wood680
oak wood710
beech wood730
ash wood750
olive wood852

Some facts

  • Density is the physical quantity that determines the ratio beetwen the mass and the volume that mass occupies.

  • We usually denote the density by d or the small Greek letter ρ (pronunciation: rho).
  • If the sample body has mass m and it occupies volume V, then the density of the substance from which it is composed can be calculated using the following formula:
    density (d) = mass (m) / volume (V)

  • The density unit in SI is kg/m3 (kilogram per cubic meter).
  • Density is a characteristic feature of the substance. An example of a relatively high density substance is steel. Another example is styrofoam, which has relative small density.
    ⓘ Example: If we grab a small steel ball in hand, we can easily feel it's weight. If we grab anologous (i.e. with the same size), but made of styrofoam ball in second hand, then we notice that it is much heavier than the previous one. This is because steel has a much higher density than styrofoam.

  • Substances with high density are good acoustic insulators. For example, making the walls of a room with a thick concrete layer (high density material) will cause what is going on inside to be very poorly audible on the outside.
  • Acoustic insulation does not go hand in hand with thermal insulation. For example: styrofoam (very low density material) is known as a very good thermal insulator, but is unusable as an acoustic insulator.
  • ⚠ WARNING! Substances can change their density depending on temperature and pressure. Therefore density tables also contain the conditions in which they were measured.
  • Wood density can vary greatly from species to species. The average density of ochroma pyramidale wood (commonly known as balsa wood) is only 110 kg/m3. For comparison, the olive wood is approximately 8 times greater (852 kg/m3). Very low density of the first one was noticed by engineers, which resulted in using it in many fields of industry. Balsa wood is used to build many useful things for example:
    • rafts and yachts,
    • surfboards,
    • gliders and airplanes,
    • orthopedic prostheses,
    • table tennis bats,
    • fishing rods,
    • structural elements in modeling,
    • pipe filters,
    • insulating fittings,
    • conductors (bats).

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