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Table of Solar System Planets properties
Table shows most common properties of Solar System planets collected into one set of data.

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Solar System planets

PropertyMercuryVenusEarthMarsJupiterSaturnUranusNeptunePluto
Mean distance from the Sun [km]57740000108141000000149504000227798000777840000142610000028678300004.49365×10125.983914828×1012
Aphelion [km]69816900108939000152100000249200000816620000151450000030080000004.54×10127.37593×1012
Perihelion [km]46001200107477000147095000206700000740520000135255000027420000004.46×10124.43682×1012
Semi-major axis [km]57909050108208000149598023227939200778570000143353000028724600004.5×10125.90638×1012
Eccentricity0.205630.0067720.01670860.09340.04890.05650.0463810.0094560.2488
Orbital period
[Julian years]
0.2408460.6151981.0000174211.8808211.86229.457184.0205164.8248
Synodic period [days]115.88583.92365.25636779.96398.88378.09369.66367.49366.73
Average orbital speed [km/s]47.36235.0229.7824.00713.079.6884.02055.434.67
Mean anomaly [°]174.79650.115358.61719.38720.02273.867142.2386256.22814.53
Longitude of ascending node [°]48.33176.68-11.2606449.558100.464113.66574.006131.784110.299
Argument of perihelion [°]29.12454.884114.20783286.502273.867339.39296.998857276.336113.834
Number of natural satelites0012696227145
Mean radius [km]2439.76051.863713389.5699115823225362246221188.3
Flattening000.00335280.005890.064870.097960.02290.01710.01
Surface area [km2]7480000046023000051007200014479850061419000000427000000008115600000761830000017790000
Volume [km3]608300000009284300000001.08321×10121631800000001.4313×10158.2713×10146.833×10136.254×10137057000000
Mass [kg]3.3011×10234.8675×10245.97237×10246.4171×10231.8982×10275.6834×10268.681×10251.0243×10261.303×1022
Mean density [g/cm3]5.4275.2435.5143.93351.3260.6871.271.6381.854
Surface gravity [g]0.380.90410.3762.5281.0650.88611.150.063
Moment of inertia factor [I/MR2]0.3460.330.33070.36620.2540.210.230.230.31
Escape velocity [km/s]4.2510.3611.1865.02759.535.521.323.54.3632
Sidereal rotation period [days]58.646-243.0250.997269681.0259570.41354160.439583-0.718330.67136.38723
Equatorial rotation velocity [km/h]10.8926.521674.4868.2245000355009320965047.18
Axial tilt [°]0.0342.6423.439281125.193.1326.7397.7728.32122.53
North pole right ascension [°]281.01272.76-317.68143268.05740.589257.311299.3132.993
North pole declination [°]61.4567.16-52.886564.49583.537-15.17542.95-6.163
Albedo (geometric)0.0680.6890.3670.170.5380.4990.510.410.575

What is the meaning of each calculator field ?

  • Mean distance from the Sun - because planets move on ellipses, their distance from the Sun is not constant . In this row the distance averaged over the entire path is displayed,
  • aphelion - the maximum distance of the planet from the Sun,
  • perihelion - the minimum distance of the planet from the Sun.,
  • semi-major axis - half the longer axis of the ellipse on which the planet moves,
  • eccentricity - dimensionless property determining shape of the orbit. The eccentricity of the orbit in the gravity field can be expressed by the formula:
    e=1+2EL2μG2m2M2e = \sqrt{1 + \frac{2EL^2}{\mu G^2 m^2 M^2}}
    where:
    • E - total energy,
    • L - total momentum,
    • μ\mu - reduced mass,
    • m - mass of planet,
    • M - mass of Sun,
    • G - gravitional constant.
  • orbital period - time measured in years in which a given planet will go through its entire orbit, i.e. it will perform a full circle around the sun,
  • synodic period - the time of circulation given in days, for example for Earth it is about 365 days,
  • average orbital speed - the speed at which the planets move depends on the point of the orbit in which they are located, in this row the speed is averaged over the entire orbit,
  • mean anomaly - angular parameter used in the description of the Keplerian orbit motion, binding the position of the body with time:
    M=n(ttp)M = n (t - t_{p})
    where:
    • t - the time for which we calculate the anomaly,
    • tpt_p - the time when body passage through pericenter,
    • n - average movement equal to 2πT\frac{2 \pi}{T} (T means the orbital period),
  • longitude of ascending node - parameter determining the position of the planet's orbit in space. Another name for this property is rectascency. In the case of planets, this is the angle measured in the ecliptic plane, with the apex in the Sun and the arms, one of which is directed to the spring equinox point (the Aries point) and the other to the ascending node of the orbit. The angle Ω is calculated in the direction of the movement of the Earth around the Sun (counter-clockwise),
  • argument of perihelion - parameter determining the position of the planet's orbit in space. Specifies the orientation of the orbit in its plane. It is a positional angle measured in the plane of the orbit between the directions from the Sun to the ascending node and perihelion. The angle ω is calculated in the direction of the planet's orbit,
  • number of natural satelites - the number of discovered natural satelites of given planet, colloquially number of moons,
  • mean radius - planets don't have the shape of exact sphere, so the radius run at different points on the surface is generally different. This field contains the average radius for a given planet.
  • flattening - magnitude used in astronomy, describing the deviation from the spherical shape of the planet or star. They are expressed by the ratio of the difference in the equatorial and polar radius's length to the equatorial radius:
    s=rerpers = \frac{r_{e} - r_{p}}{e_{r}}
    where:
    • rer_{e} - equatorial radius,
    • rpr_{p} - polar radius.
  • surface area - surface area of the planet given in km2,
  • volume - volume of the planet given in km3,
  • mass - mass of the planet given in kg,
  • mean density - mean density of the planet planety i.e. mass to volume ratio,
  • surface gravity - gravitational acceleration prevailing on a given planet expressed as a multiple of earth g value,
  • moment of inertia factor - measure of inertia of the body (in this case the planet) in rotational motion:
    I=mR2I = mR^2
    gdzie:
    • m - mass of the planet,
    • R - planet distance from the rotation axis.

  • escape velocity - the speed that should be given to the body to become a satellite of a given planet.,
  • sidereal rotation period - the time that passes between two consecutive moments in which the body rotates in the same monotonous motion takes the same orientation in space. The period of rotation T, the rotating body with the angular velocity ω is given by the formula:
    T=2πωT = \frac{2\pi}{\omega}
    where:
    • 2πω\frac{2\pi}{\omega} - angular speed.
  • equatorial rotation velocity - the rotation speed of the planet around its own axis,
  • axial tilt - the inclination of the planet's rotation axis in degrees,
  • north pole right ascension - one of the astronomical coordinates determining the position of the celestial body on the celestial sphere in the astronomical coordinate system called equatorial equatorial system,
  • north pole declination - one of the coordinates determining the position of the body in both equatorial systems: equinox and hour. We define it as the angle between the direction from the observer to the object and the plane of the celestial equator. Objects located in the northern hemisphere of the sky have a positive declination (from 0° to 90°), and on the south negative (from 0° to -90°).
  • albedo (geometric) - ratio of reflected radiation to incident radiation. In other words, it determines the ability to reflect rays through the surface of a given planet.

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