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Table of water density values at different temperature
Table shows how density of water depends on temperature. Data were measured under so-called normal pressure i.e. 1013,25 hPa.

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Water density in temperature function under normal pressure (1013,25 hPa)

Temperature [°C]Water density [kg/m³]
0999.82
1999.89
2999.94
3999.98
41000
51000
6999.99
7999.96
8999.91
9999.85
10999.77
11999.68
12999.58
13999.46
14999.33
15999.19
16999.03
17998.86
18998.68
19998.49
20998.29
21998.08
22997.86
23997.62
24997.38
25997.13
26996.86
27996.59
28996.31
29996.02
30995.71
31995.41
32995.09
33994.76
34994.43
35994.08
36993.73
37993.37
38993
39992.63
40992.25
41991.86
42991.46
43991.05
44990.64
45990.22
46989.8
47989.36
48988.92
49988.47
50988.02
51987.56
52987.09
53986.62
54986.14
55985.65
56985.16
57984.66
58984.16
59983.64
60983.13
61982.6
62982.07
63981.54
64981
65980.45
66979.9
67979.34
68978.78
69978.21
70977.63
71977.05
72976.47
73975.88
74975.28
75974.68
76974.08
77973.46
78972.85
79972.23
80971.6
81970.97
82970.33
83969.69
84969.04
85968.39
86967.73
87967.07
88966.41
89965.74
90965.06
91964.38
92963.7
93963.01
94962.31
95961.62
96960.91
97960.2
98959.49
99958.78
100958.05

Some facts

  • The water from chemical of view is a chemical compound (molecule) built of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
  • The molecular formula of water is H2O and structural formula is H-O-H.
  • The systematic name of water (i.e. used by chemists) is hydrogen oxide. Other acceptable names are dihydrogen monooxide or oxydan.
  • The density of the substance varies depending on external conditions, i.e. on temperature and pressure.
  • How the temperature influences density changes depends on the kind of substance. For some substances this effect is significant, in case of others it may be small.
  • The density of water reaches its maximum around 4°C. Both below and above this temperature, the density of water is lower.
  • At the pressure of 1013,25 hPa (i.e. in the so-called normal conditions), the water density is equal to 1000 kg/m3kg/m^3.
  • In everyday life, it is often assumed to approximate the water density to 1000 kg/m3kg/m^3. This approximation is very practical (and generally sufficiently accurate for everyday activities) , because then 1l of water weighs approximately 1 kg. For example, this means that buying 1.5l bottle of mineral water, we need to bring home about 1.5 kg, etc.

More about density

  • Density is the physical quantity that determines the ratio beetwen the mass and the volume that mass occupies.
  • We usually denote the density by d or the small Greek letter ρ (pronunciation: rho).
  • If the sample body has mass m and it occupies volume V, then the density of the substance from which it is composed can be calculated using the following formula:
    d=mVd = \frac{m}{V}
    gdzie:
    • d = density,
    • m = mass,
    • V = volume.
  • The density unit in SI system is kilogram per cubic meter:
    kgm3\frac{kg}{m^3}
  • Density is a feature of a particular substance. An example of a relatively high density substance is steel. Example of relatively small density is styrofoam, .
    ⓘ Example: If we grab a small steel ball in hand, we can easily feel it's weight. If we grab anologous (i.e. with the same size), but made of styrofoam ball in second hand, then we notice that it is much lighter than the previous one. This is because steel has a much higher density than styrofoam.
  • Substances with high density are good acoustic insulators. For example, making the walls of a room with a thick concrete layer (high density material) will cause what is going on inside to be very poorly audible on the outside.
  • Acoustic insulation does not go hand in hand with thermal insulation. For example: styrofoam (very low density material) is known as a very good thermal insulator, but is unusable as an acoustic insulator.
  • ⚠ WARNING! Substances can change their density depending on temperature and pressure. Therefore density tables also contain the conditions in which they were measured.

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